This research was done to investigate the cause of hypogonadism and its risk factors in Ghanaian men with type 2 diabetes.

Hypogonadism is a clinical condition that results from inability of the testes to produce adequate testosterone. The study took place at the National Diabetes Management and Research Center, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Accra, Ghana and involved 210 volunteers of which 105 were type 2 diabetic male who were not on insulin. The other 105 were healthy controls between 30 and 60 years.

They measured the total testosterone, Sex hormone binding globulin, prolactin, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI)    Data regarding family history of diabetes, reproductive, socio-demographic, anthropomorphic and other medical conditions were also collected.They then precoded to analyse the various parameters. After the appropriate biochemical experiments were performed the participants were grouped  into three according to the total testosterone levels:    • hypogonadal group (<8nmol/L),     • borderline group (8 to 12 nmol/L)    • eugonadal group (>12nmol/L). Hypogonadism was 5 times greater in participants with diabetes that those without. 37 diabetic men (35.2% of total diabetic men) and 7 non-diabetic men (6.

7% of total non-diabetic men) fell under the hypogonadal group. 21 (20%) and 10 (9.5%) had testosterone levels between 8 -12 nmol/L for the diabetic men and non-diabetic men respectively. Again 47 (44.8%) and 88 (83.8%) were eugonadal for diabetic and non-diabetic men respectively.

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No significant change in follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, sex hormone binding globulin and estradiol between controls and type 2 diabetics were observed. However, diabetic men had significantly higher levels of luteinizing hormone than non-diabetics. The Total testosterone levels were inversely related to body mass index, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride.    They then concluded that fasting blood sugar, triglyceride and BMI were risk factors for hypogonadism in type 2 diabetic Ghanaian men and that they affected the vessels in the testes leading to primary hypogonadism.

Again most Ghanaian men with type 2 diabetes had lower serum total testosterone levels than healthy men.