Research Notes (Ashley)Social Create thriving areas that can provide jobs and homes Reducing commuting needsProvides entertainment for everyone Urban development may increase traffic70% of the world’s population moves into citiesEconomical “Biodiversity must be built into urban development to make future cities sustainable” (RTCC Staff, 2012)Higher crime rates Force poorer residents out of their homes. Urban development may result in urban decayMore pets not much wildlife where we liveEconomy can be stable Increase in tourism Environmental Trying to not cut down too many trees when building new homes More pets not much wildlife where we liveBiodiversity can be important for natural ecosystems and also human made Decisions about biodiversity can affect humans and also the environment around them Urbanization causes biodiversity to decline.”60% of urban land in 2030 is yet to be built” (Elmqvist,2012)promoting low carbon usage and have better resources as technology develops Use vegetation and trees to help the “look” of the city and help biodiversity Vegetation and plants to reduce the risk of flooding Climate change is a huge issue not only in local cities but also throughout the worldMore forests being cleaned out the less space there will be for the animals Have to adapt to the new environment Can become an invasive speciesAnimals can flee to another ecosystem disturb the biodiversity in that area die off during travelBenefits and Costs of Intervening with Biodiversity This benefits both the critic and advocateActions taken to intervene include.. Taking endangered species away from natural habitats and into zoos or reserves (ex-situ conservation)Allows these species to have the resources the need to survive that they don’t have in their “real” homes Helps prevent extinction.In-situ conservation Protecting the endangered species while still in their natural habitats. Creating new habitats building their homesClearing forests Cleaning up litter Restoring habitatsCreating laws to deserve harmful events that harm the animals and their habitats Oil spills Over Hunting Animal is being hunted and killed at a fast rateHarder to reproduce as quickly when they are being hunted Population starts to become lower Leads to endangerment More Pros of Urban Development More Cons of Urban Development Responses to the needs of new people in communities Attracts an increasing number of migrantsIncrease amount of jobs Reduces commute needs Entertainment More convenient Better access to new schools and workplaces Hospitals and other health care services closer by Schools, colleges and universities are more common and easier to get to in citiesCan cause people to move out of old homes so they can build more expensive new onesToo many trees are being cut down Homes of animals and food for these wild animals Hard for them to live in cities and hard from them to move far away Forested areas are the most targeted Water pollution Air pollution (too much traffic!)Changes in natural water cycle sewage and garbage dumped can spill into bodies of water or sewage is poured water which can pollute it Causes outbreaks of epidemics.Climate change Can possibly increase the amount of hunting More people that come into an areaMore need for fur for clothing or furniture/decorations for new homes References Biodiversity & Human Well-being. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://www.greenfacts.org/en/biodiversity/l-3/1-define-biodiversity.htmBiodiversity must be built into urban development to make future cities sustainable. (2012, November 16). Retrieved January 16, 2018, from http://www.climatechangenews.com/2012/11/16/biodiversity-must-be-built-into-urban-development-to-make-future-cities-sustainable/Danev, N. (n.d.). Positive and Negative Effects of an Urban Development. Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://classroom.synonym.com/positive-and-negative-effects-of-an-urban-development-12082566.htmlHardman, S. (2013, April 25). How does urbanization affect biodiversity? Retrieved January 16, 2018, fromhttps://ecologicablog.wordpress.com/2011/11/06/how-does-urbanization-affect-biodiversiy-part-one/Human Intervention on Biodiversity. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://tundratrek-torontozoo.weebly.com/human-intervention-on-biodiversity.htmlPros and Cons of Urbanization. (2016, December 07). Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://rashidfaridi.com/2012/03/08/pros-and-cons-of-urbanization/Risks and Benefits of Human Intervention. (2015, April 20). Retrieved January 16, 2018, from https://biodiversitysabrinapunjani.wordpress.com/risks-and-benefits-of-human-intervention-2/Williams , T. (n.d.). What Are the Pros & Cons of Urban Development? Retrieved January 16, 2018, fromhttps://classroom.synonym.com/what-are-the-pros-cons-of-urban-development-12079447.htmlResearch notes (Gabby) What is urbanization?Urbanization is the expansion in the extent of individuals living in towns and urban areas. Urbanization is a process of becoming urban, moving to urban areas, changing from agribusiness to different interests that are common in cities”In 2011, 81 per cent of Canadians lived in an urban centre, compared to 45 per cent in 1911″ (Urbanization, 2015)Causes of Urbanization1. “Growing industrialization” (Advantages and Disadvantages of Urban Life, 2017)2. “Population pressure” (Advantages and Disadvantages of Urban Life, 2017)3. “Employment opportunities” (Advantages and Disadvantages of Urban Life, 2017)4. “In hope of better standard of living” (Advantages and Disadvantages of Urban Life, 2017)Economy New businessesExisting companies experience an increase in businessWell paid jobsMore job opportunitiesTourism growthTransportation Population growth Placing businesses in one location allows people to walk from place to place Public transportation Less car pollution Many hospitals for medical careNearby by shopping centres and restaurantsSocialExcitement of city life Living close to storesEnjoy the people that they see regularlyClose to facilitiesEntertainmentDiverse cultures Better education Recreational sports References ARTIBISE, A. F., & Stelter, G. (2015, April 21). Urbanization. Retrieved January 15, 2018, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/urbanization/Brukman, J. (2014, December 11). 10 reasons why cities are way better than the suburbs. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.thrillist.com/entertainment/nation/why-cities-are-better-than-rural-americaEnglish Lesson: Cities – Advantages and Disadvantages of Urban Life. (2017, May 15). Retrieved January 16, 2018, from http://www.yourenglishsuccesstoday.com/english-language-blog/cities-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-urban-lifeFainstein, S. S. (n.d.). Urban Planning. Retrieved January 16, 2018, from http://www.academicroom.com/topics/what-is-urban-planningBenefits of Sustainable Urban Development (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from http://www.suda.ca/BenefitsofSUD.html Terri Williams. (n.p.) What Are the Pros & Cons of Urban Development. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://classroom.synonym.com/what-are-the-pros-cons-of-urban-development-12079447.html SkriptOlivia – Interviewer Ashley – Critic (Against urban development but for biodiversity)Gabby – Advocate (For urban development)ALL: Welcome back everybody to the G.A.O club with today’s issue on urban development!Olivia: Urban development is one of the top impacts on biodiversity. Today I have Gabby and Ashley with me to talk about urban development and their thoughts on biodiversity. So Gabby would you like to explain what Urban development is?Gabby: Urban development is the development of infrastructure, where populations move from rural to urban areas allowing the increase of the number of people living in cities and towns. Olivia: What is the main goal for urban development?Gabby: The main goal is to create thriving areas that can provide employment opportunities, housing, entertainment and also a community full of diversity, while reducing commuting needs.Olivia: Ashley you’re making a sour face over there… do you have something to add to Gabby’s point?Ashley: Well, on the other hand, urban development really increases traffic and noise which of course can disturb humans and animals. Also taking pollution into consideration which affects our air and plants.Olivia: That’s really interesting does this have anything to do with biodiversity?Ashley: Yes it does, biodiversity which is basically the measure of the varietyof life forms on earth. An example of this would be, the different types of plants all over our ecosystem. When a bunch of trees are being cut down for more and more homes and roads, animals are losing their homes and even their foods which leads to more extinction than we already have. Olivia: OK well here’s a question does biodiversity increase or decrease in the response of urbanization?Gabby: That’s a good question. No, biodiversity isn’t increasing or decreasing because we are protecting the endangered species while still in their natural habitats, for example in certain areas there are greenland and green belts that we provide for animals to live and have a safe environment.Ashley: I disagree, there is tons of evidence showing how the increase in urbanization can really affect biodiversity. 60% of urban land in 2030 is yet to be built which gives you guys tons of time to promote low carbon usage and pollution. Adding those green belts and small areas of land won’t be as beneficial. As this keeps getting ignored there can be big changes in the natural water cycle. Sewage and garbage is constantly dumped and spilled into bodies of water which pollutes water that animals and plants need, and can cause outbreaks of epidemics.Olivia: You guys have very good points between the benefits and costs on intervening with biodiversity but, back to urban development what are the pros and cons? Ashley: To start with the basics, too many trees are being cut down and homes of animals and food for these wild animals are being destroyed on the daily. From this, it is hard for them to live in cities because of the lack of forest spaces and have to adapt to the new environment. Some animals have to flee to another ecosystem which can disturb the biodiversity in that area and die off during travel. This can then lead to them becoming an an invasive species. Gabby: Urban development has many pros to our lifestyle. Urban development creates new businesses and an increase in existing businesses. This allows an opening to more jobs and better pay. Since businesses are close to one another this allows us to walk to place to place or take public transportation instead of using your car. Urban development also increases the growth of the populations because it attracts an increasing amount of immigrants. Ashley: Well if we are thinking about the economy, this new development can cause people to move out of old homes so they can build new expensive ones which these home owners may not be able to afford. It can increase the amount of poverty, you can’t just kick out people who have had homes here for years just to allow new younger people to fill their spaces. Gabby: Our goal is not to kick people out of their homes, it is to create more job opportunities so everyone will be able to work and get paid so they can have a better life and be able to care for their families. Olivia: Okay, okay ladies it’s time to calm down! We don’t need to be yelling and arguing over the economy of biodiversity. I think it’s time to close off the podcast is there any last words you would like to say about urban development?Ashley: I just believe that people like you should be worrying more about how much biodiversity is decreasing not only in Canada but everywhere around the world. As long as we raise awareness, people will be able to understand the issues you are causing and be motivated to make a change. Gabby: Ashley, I get what you are saying but we are making good changes by adding all these new things that will benefit people and their lifestyle.