MSc Engineering Project6E7Z2120 SandileMPANDEId: 16060873MSCMECHANICAL ENGINEERING     PreliminaryProject Report                                                                     Supervisedby DR OLAWOLE KUTI                                Table of Contents                                                                                       Aim(s) and Objectives……………………………………………….…………………….

      1Introduction………….……………………………………………….…………………….     2Noveltyof the project ……………………………………….……….

……………………..     APreliminary Literature Survey……………………………………………………………Proposed Approach andMethodology…..

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…Evaluation and Testing Methods……………………………………………………………Economic, legal, social, ethical andenvironmental Considerations………………………..Project Management…………………………………………………………………………Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………….   10 References                                                                                                                             R-1Appendix A   Acronyms                                                                                                       A-1  AppendixB    Ganttchart                                                                                                    B-1AppendixC   Estimationof Project Cost                                                                           C-1           AimTo Redesign and Manufacturean existing manually operated monitor 3″ waterway in view to improve the costprice of the monitor, improve performance and acquire external certification.Objectives·        Tocarryout value analysis of the current design.

·        Toanalyse and summarize the required technical improvements.·        Tore-design the monitor components that makes the monitor assembly.·        Toanalyse and improve pressure-flow characteristics of the monitor using computerfluid dynamics software (CFD). ·        Tocarryout structural integrity of the monitor using finite element analysis(FEA).·        Tomanufacture and test a full size prototype of the monitor.

IntroductionManual fire monitors are widelyused in marine, offshore, industrial and many other corrosive environments tostop unwanted fires. Fixed Monitorsspend most of their lives stationary. However when unwanted fires are perceivedthey can frequently be the only practical way of applying foam or water to extinguishfire. Although simplein principle, fire monitors are sophisticated engineering pieces of workdesigned to deliver a precise performance after long periods of inactive.

Justlike another engineering challenge the design of a fire monitor can take manyarrangements depending on the exact hazard it is anticipated to protect and themechanism and technique of operation the designer uses to complete the finallayout. When designinga fire monitor the designer must balance performance, operational life and easeof use bearing in mind the cost. It is vital thus, that monitors are robust andwill have a long service life, even under harsh conditions.

 Fixed fire monitors are often found anywherewhere there are considerable Class B fire risks whereas mobile or portable firemonitors are frequently utilised to safeguard various risks by moving themonitors around the site. Almost all industrial fire hazards are subjectto fire monitor protection, however some of the more popular applications mayinclude; refineries, chemical plants, helicopter landing pads, fueldistribution depots and process plants etc… Although most fire monitors arepermanently secured to pipework and designed to extinguish particularinstallations, in certain circumstances monitors are mounted on trailers thatcan be moved from one fire hazard to another. But mobile monitors need a watersupply, and usually this is delivered by hoses or portable pumps. The jetreaction force for a portable fire monitor can differ from few kg, for smallground monitor to over a tonne for larger trailer-mounted units. Portablemonitors must be secured so that it cannot move once the full water flow andpressure is applied.

The design of pump pipes that make up a monitor iscritical as they serve several functions. They contain water or foam while permittingthe jet to be moved in both the vertical and horizontal planes, the pipes must havegood strength to resist pressure and reaction forces produced by the water andthey must be robust to accommodate the mounting of further items such aslevers, nozzles and hydraulic actuators etc.; all of this must be accomplishedwith a design that is cost effective, has a tolerable pressure loss, willresist corrosion and is not heavy. The design of a monitor is a negotiationbetween cost, weight and performance. Figure 1:Typical fixed fire monitor installed at a Helideck.

Source: Incendium FireSystems Solution Novelty of the projectThe design of fire monitors is not new to the designers andmanufactures of firefighting equipment. However with the fierce competition inthe current market where most of the fire monitors are sold to oil and gasindustries. In the past few years there has been a reduction in Global oildemand growth and as result companies like Knowsley SK face a challenge ofdesigning a cost effective product with a reduced weight and good performancedue to industry challenges.

As mentioned before that the designing a firemonitor is a compromise of cost, weight and performance. It can be argued thatthe majority of fire monitor designers archive one or two of the parametersi.e. low cost can be archived without a good performance. This project aims todesign a monitor that is less cost to manufacture, light weight and goodfunctional performance. With the use of the available tools like CFD and FEA,it will be possible to analyse the performance of the monitor at the designstage where the wall thickness of the piping will also be optimised in order toacquire the maximum weight reduction.

The number of components will also be reduced for costpurposes as compared to the existing monitor and competitors designarrangement. Many companies design fixed fire monitors specifically to be usedas a manual operated fixed monitor. This design aims at coming up with asolution that is robust, the design should be able to accommodate the mountingof various items such as gear boxes etc. this will allow the monitor to be usedas an oscillating monitor, gear driven monitor, at the same time it can be usedas a manual operated fixed monitor.          A Preliminary Literature Survey1.1.         Fluid Dynamics1.1.

1.    Basic theories When analysing or modelling flow intheory perspective, one of the key variables to be considered is the fluidviscosity, viscosity considers the internal friction introduced by viscousforces exerted amongst portions of a fluid in relation to the other in motion. Theforces fluctuate due to temperature and decreases for fluids with hightemperature. Because of viscous forces, fluid that interacts with a surfacewill usually be likely to stick to it, creating a boundary layer with zero flowvelocity in relation to the surface resulting in flow losses (Massey, 1976). Dynamic andKinematic viscosity can be derived from the mass density;Where;Fluid flow in pipes canbe classed into two categories, thus laminar and turbulent flow regimes.The turbulent flowlayers are mixed and flow irregular and chaotic resulting in a nearly uniform velocitydistribution as illustrated in Figure 2. On the other end the laminar flow can be recognised bylayers of local velocities that are parallel to the pipe axis.

This paper willmainly focus on turbulent flow as this is the usual flow being experienced byfire monitors.Figure 2: Comparisonof laminar and turbulent flow velocity profilesLaminar and Turbulent flowcan be differentiated by analysing the ratio of viscous forces to momentumforces, thus the dimensionless number known as the Reynolds number.1.1.2.    Reynolds NumberThe change from laminar toturbulent flow is governed by various factors such as the geometry, flow velocity, surface temperature,surface roughness, and typeof fluid and many other factors.

The flow regime depends chiefly on theratio of inertial forces toviscous forces inthe fluid. Thus the ratio referred as the Reynoldsnumber andis given for internal flow in a circular pipe by the following equation; Where: “With large Reynolds numbers, the inertialforces, which are proportional to the fluid density and the square of the fluidvelocity, are large in relation to the viscous forces, and therefore theviscous forces cannot stop the random and rapid fluctuations of the fluid” (Fitzpatrick, 2008). Howeverwith small ormedium Reynolds numbers, the viscousforces are sufficiently huge to overcome these deviations and to maintain thefluid in line. That’s the flow is turbulentin the first case and laminar inthe second (Fitzpatrick, 2008).The critical Reynolds numberis when is at the period when the flow becomes turbulent ().Critical Reynolds numbers varies with different geometries and flow conditions.In this paper the only circular pipe geometry in looked at, for internal flowin a circular pipe, the commonly accepted value of the critical Reynolds numberis 2300 (Fitzpatrick, 2008).

When modelling flow usingCFD, it is essential to initially determine the Reynolds number, this helps thedesigner to select the correct modelling tools for the correct purposes.1.1.3.

    The Entrance RegionWhen a fluid enters a circular pipeat a uniform velocity, since it is a no-slip condition, the fluid particles inthe layer that interact with the surface of the pipe become stationery. Thislayer also forces the fluid particles in the adjacent layers to reduce speedgradually due to friction. To make up for this velocity decline, the velocity of the fluid at themidsection of the pipe needs to increase to maintain the mass flow rate throughthe pipe constant. Consequently, a velocity gradient initiate along the pipe.

Theregion of the flow in which the effects of the viscous shearing forces causedby fluid viscosity are felt is known as the velocity boundary layer or just theboundary layer. The theoretical boundary surface separate the flow in a pipeinto two regions: thus the boundary layer region, in which the viscous effectsand the velocity changes are substantial, and the irrotational (core) flowregion, where the frictional effects are negligible and the velocity stays fundamentallyconstant in the radial direction.Figure 3:The development of the velocity boundary layer in a pipe                 Proposed Approach and MethodologyThe Development of a Manually Operated Fire Monitor approachbegan by writing a product design specification (PDS) as outlined in Appendix1. The PDS will have to be approved by a manager at Knowsley SK before anydesign work can commence to avoid an unwanted product/design solution. Thedesign process of the fire monitor will adopt the process shown in Figure 4.Figure 4: Designprocess. Source: Seyyed Khandani1.    Define the problem·        Establish the required technical improvements onthe existing fire monitor.

·        Writing a project proposal.·        Creating a project design specification (PDS).·        Carryout a literature review.2.    Gather pertinent information·        Carryout literature review.·        Value analysis of the existing design.

·        Testing of the existing design.3.    Generate multiple solutions·        Investigate the positives and negatives ofexisting design. ·        Carryout individual brain storming session.·        Generate 2 – 3 concept designs of the monitor.4.

    Analyse, Evaluate and select a solution·        Carryout pressure flow analysis of the monitorusing computer fluid dynamics (CFD).·        Carryout structural analysis of the monitorusing finite element analysis (FEA).·        Evaluate the generated concepts and choose thebest solution that satisfies the PDS.

·        Review of the chosen solution.5.    Test and implement the solution·        Sourcing the materials for prototype.·        Test plan creation.·        Build and test the prototype.·        Apply for external certification.    Evaluation and Testing MethodsThedeveloped monitor will be tested for pressure loss across the piping that makesthe monitor. The results will then be evaluated and be compared with theresults for the existing design.

The Knowsley SK site has facilities that cantest the monitor at maximum flow of 1000lpm 5 bar inlet pressure. With thisrestriction in mind, it is envisaged that further testing will be carried outon a third party site or at a site where external certification will beacquired. The jet throw testing might also be carryout out at Knowsley SK wherepossible, however this is not a test requirement due to the fact that jet throwis heavily influenced by a nozzle type even though it can be argued that thepiping design will also contribute to the distance travelled by the jet throw.Figure 5 shows the existing monitor being tested for pressure loss at KnowsleySK site. The similar test circuit will adopted for the newly developed monitor.

Figure 5:Existing monitor tested at Knowsley SK site. Source: Knowsley SK        Economic, legal, social, ethical and environmental Considerations  Economic Environmental Ethical Legal Social N/A ·         Foam concentrate. Regardless of the fact that foam is highly effective when used to extinguish fuel fires. All firefighting foams have a degree of environmental impact. To reduce the risk of environmental impact, end users should select more environmental friendly foams. Also end users should provide a method of capture and control of any foam discharges during testing and commissioning of the monitor. In a design perspective the environmental impact due to foam can be reduced by designing the system correctly, using the appropriate seals in order to prevent accidental discharges, leakages and carry out the required system maintenance.

N/A ·         Working instruction manual for the finished product would be created for the monitor with do’s and don’ts in order to avoid injuries or even deaths to the operators and other people e.g. o   Do not climb on the monitor o   Do not point the nozzle to the direction of people during operation o   Operators should wear PPE when operating the monitor ·         Warning labels would be attached to the monitors where appropriate. N/A           Project Management                                     Conclusionhttps://edubirdie.com/plagiarism-checker              Appendix A        Acronyms                          Appendix B        Gantt chart                Appendix C        Estimation of Project Cost