Chapter 1THEPROBLEMBackground of the StudyTeaching as a profession has been universally recognized andaccepted as a science and an art. A more serious look at its effect on thepopulation being taught, points for a greater emphasis on the methodologies andvarious ways of imparting knowledge to the young, (Salandanan 2007).Information Technologyas the science of managing andprocessing information using computershas greatly advanced in the last decade in both developed and developingcountries. Educational Innovationswhichrefers to the as the process of making changes to something established byintroducing something new to educational process has greatly changed theway people learn, communicate and do business. Previous empirical studies worldover have highlighted the roles of a computer as an instructional tool in theclassroom, particularly in enriching the teaching and learning of Mathematics(Mubichakani, 2012; Wanjala, 2005).
However, it is surprising that most schoolsare yet to integrate its use in the teaching and learning of the subject.Burgos National high school is a public secondary schoollocated at barangay New Poblacion, Burgos, La Union. It was created with thepassageof Municipal Resolution no. 29 on December 1966.
Despite of its251years existence, most teachers are still using the traditional way ofimpartingknowledge to its students. This situation motivated the researcher to develop astudy entitled ” ICT in Mathematicsinstruction among grade 10 learners and junior high school mathematics teachersin the public secondary school ofBurgos, Schools Division of La Union. In relation to the field of study as being emphasize, this study is delimitedto the following considerations: The extent of adequacy of ICT instructional materials? Types of ICT use in MathematicsInstruction, Capability of Teachers touse technology in Mathematics Instruction, Constraints encountered by teachersin using technology in mathematics instruction and the possible solutions tosolve or minimize constraints encountered by teachers in using technology inmathematics instruction in the public secondary schools of Burgos District,Division of La Union.Society is in constant change, and the secondary schoolprogram must keep pace. For too many years, the secondary Mathematics programwas static. Our contemporary world demands a kind of mathematical knowledgethat is very different from that require in the past.ICT capabilityinvolves technical and cognitive proficiency to access, use, develop, createand communicate information appropriately, using ICT tools.
Learners demonstrate this capabilitybyapplying technologypurposefully to solve problems, analyses and exchange3information, develop ideas, createmodels and control devices. They are discriminating in their use of informationand ICT tools, and systematic in reviewing and evaluating the contribution thatICT can make to their work as it progresses. ICT capability is much broaderthan acquiring a set of technical competencies in software applications,although clearly these are important. ICT capability involves the appropriateselection, use and evaluation of ICT. In essence, pupils need to know what ICTis available, when to use it and why it is appropriate for the task.Knowledge and basic skills compose a large part of learningin mathematics. Technology is ubiquitous. It affects the lives of the studentsand teachers in dozens of ways every day.
As a digital natives, ourstudents needs teachers who are willingto step beyond the way they were taught into a classroom bustling withpossibilities for transmitting, developing, and assessing skills. Studentswants to explore and express their understanding of new content by connectingit to real world tools that they know and love. And be mindful that somedigital natives know everything and more about, getting beyond goggle andassessing the validity and suitability of individual websites.According to Heddens, James W. ( 1988, sixth edition ), the popularity of serious questionsconcerning the teaching of mathematics. Obviously, technology has had a majorimpact outside the classroom. 4However, is the use of technology appropriate inside theclassroom? Preparing children to function successfully in the real world is aprimary goal of mathematics instruction.
Since technology is part of the realworld, school system and teachers have an obligation to teach children how touse the technology.In thetwentieth century schools encounter a number of difficulties includingintegration of information and communication technologies (hereafter ICT) intothe teaching and learning, education curriculum and change in methods inpursuit of developing learner lifelong learning skills. Strategy ofImplementation of Information and Communication Technologies in the LithuanianEducation (2001) emphasizes the main causes that lead to the necessity toutilize ICT in education: changes in economy, social and education scienceareas.1. Economic changes arerelated to the integration of information technologies in various areas ofnational economy. Computerization of various economic spheres demand of ICTskilled workers.
2. Social changes arerelated to the abundance of information, development ofcommunication network, which opens new opportunities to obtain and spreadinformation.3. Pedagogical changes arerelated to the opportunity to use information technologies better and acquireknowledge of various subjects and higher order skills sooner.5Educationsystem faces with the biggest challenge brought by Information andCommunication Technologies. Education has to respond to economic and socialchanges so it educates young generation equipped with newest knowledge andskills (including ICT) ready to face challenges of the constantly changing world.The growing placement of microcomputers in classroom issupported by school administrators, teachers and parents.
If we makeassumptions that technology is a viable tool of mathematics instruction, whenshould computer be introduce into the instructional program?It stands to reason that the computer is the best tool toprepare teaching materials. Even illustrations that might take extra effortusing computer, as compared preparing them freehand on paper or on thechalkboard can easily captured as a file on the computer because of theincreased flexibility afforded by this approached ( Poole, B. J., 1997 ).According to Salandanan ( 2006 ), Technology aidedstrategies are aimed at providing valuable experiences through instructionaldevices that can be viewed and heard, updated information such as recentdiscoveries and communicated are learned through pictures, films, tapes andtelevision.
Integration which isan Act of combining into an integral whole, for example in this context it isthe application of technology intoteaching and learning to assist, enhance and extend student knowledge. Integration of informationtechnologies into the system of education was 6discussedby a number of authors such as Hargreaves (1994), Lawton (1994), Lai (2001), Ringstaff(1995), Murray and Campbell (2000), Billowes (1999), and others. It wasemphasized that the change in teaching and learning while integratinginformation and communication technologies is a long process which requires alot of resources and depends on every individual teacher, thus creating anumber of barriers and difficulties.One of the most important trends in thepresent education system is the change and restructuration in theteaching/learning process integrating technological innovations.The mainrestructuration elementof the change of the teaching practice.
Newteaching/learning methods incorporate problem-solving learning, cooperativelearning, orientation to real goals and the change in the teacher roles(Masters, Yelland 2002).Computer software which is the collection of computer programsand related data that provides the instructions telling what to do. It is difficult for teachers tochange according to the requirements(teachers should know and be able tousemodels of ICT skill acquisition, teacher should be acquainted with virtualenvironments, he/she should be able to integrate ICT in the curriculum, teachershould know main functions of operation systems etc.
) of the documents whichregulate ICT integration (Strategy of Information and Communication TechnologyImplementation in the Lithuanian System of Education (2000), Teacher ComputerLiteracy Standard (2001), 7Programmeof Information and Communication Technology Implementation in the LithuanianEducational System (2002) ) because they do not have enough ICT competency,therefore, resistance to change conducted by ICT integration in the teachingand learning process emerges and barriers to the integration of information andcommunication technologies into the teaching/learning process appear.Sinko (2002), discussingthe barriers to successful integration of ICT into the teaching/learningprocess, distinguishes the following factors:? Lack of support for theeducational personnel and learners;? Lack of teachercompetencies to use certain software;? Insufficient financing(of teacher professional developments in ICT field, of appropriate computerhardware and software etc.);? Lack of cooperation among academic personnelin the same and in another schools.WhereasLai (2001), distinguishing barriers to the ICT integration into theteaching/learning process, describes them in a more detailed and structuredway:? Lack of competencies;? Limited accessibility? Lack of support? Lack of competencies? Shortage of time8? Change process:The highest barrier to integration of information andcommunication technologies into the teaching/learning process is the change assuch. CEO (1999) discerns five stages of integration and overcomingdifficulties:1.
Entry – learners are trained howto use information and communication technologies;2. Adoption – teachers use technologiesas supplementary aids in the context of traditional teaching/learning methods;3. Adaptation – technologies are usedfor expansion/enrichment of the curriculum;4. Appropriation – technologies are integrated and used due to their exceptional andunique qualities; 5. Invention – new areas are invented where theuse of technologies appropriate. Having overviewed thebarriers and difficulties of ICT integration presented by different authors,such as Murray and Campbell (2000), Hargreaves (1994), Cook, (1997), Ang(1998), Glennan and Melmad (1996), Ringstaff (1995), (Lai 2001), Sinko (2002)and etc.
, and afersummarizing, we willpresent the main factors that have to be taken into account seeking to overcomethe barriers and difficulties: 9· Political decisionsUsing information andcommunication technologies in the process of teaching/learning, i.e., in class,their integration into the present curriculum aiming at improvement ofteaching/learning is the most difficult process. This attempt to integrateinformation and Ministry of communication technologies can be fruitless andinefficient unless the Education and Science plans and provides schools withproper resources (Lai 2001). · School managementSchools can play a veryimportant role in integrating ICT into the system of education.
It is worthmentioning that not only ministries should tale how the process of integrationshould be organized, but alsoschools could give feedback on difficulties theyare facing integrating ICT into curriculum and suggesting what could be donedifferently.· Teacher as learnerTeachershave to experience learner position. In the learner position teacher models a positivesituation for learners and shows learners a different perspective, which makesthe perception of new subjects easier. Teacher has to feel free and without anyrestrictions in the teaching environment.
Only these feelings will foster theteacher to learn and develop further. 10· Barriers as opportunitiesThe emerged difficulties should be viewed as opportunities todevelop. It should not decrease motivation but should be transformed into theconstructive process of teaching/learning, which could support ICT integrationin a more efficient way (Lai 2001).· Peer supportReliablecolleagues can become internal “technology” teachers who could teachin small and convenient groups. Teachers can be provided help by sharing bestpractices of the same school teachers or analyzing the benchmarking projects.· Time issueIf theschool intends to achieve good results in the area of ICT integration, then atleast one week a year should be devoted to teacher activities outside theclass. During these events teachers should be acquainted with innovations ininformation and communication technology area, and should be explained indetail how to use these innovations and integrate them into the process ofteaching/learning.ICT advent to the school conducts the need of reorganizationof the teaching and learning and even of school management and structure itbegins process of change.
Fullan (1993) asserts that change is a complexphenomenon, whereas the teaching and learning change is even a more 11complex and complicatedprocess and presents several principles which, according to him, lead to thesuccessful change process.In these principles Fullan(1999) emphasizes that change is a complicated process, because it is necessaryto change power structures and because a great number of people participate inthis process, including teachers, principals, school managers, learners andtheir families.Changecannot be required from the people who lead school or from the government;however, support of the latter is particularly important Fullan (1999) alsonotices that during the change the problems arise and conflicts emerge and thatit is necessary to learn from them, not to look at them as a negativephenomenon. Change requires cooperation, however, this cooperation has to allowfor and foster the difference in opinions and approaches. According to him, thewhole process of change has to be flexible and its efficiency depends on the planof change, if it is designed and how specific it is. Thereare, certainly, a number of barriers, including teacher development and changeprocess, to successful integration of technologies into the teaching/learningprocess.
Until these barriers exist, the learners will not be able to take fulladvantage of the opportunities provided by information and communicationtechnologies. 12Statesmilitary academy at West Point implemented three phase toaccomplish facultydevelopment most effectively. The three phases werelearning, practice andfeedback, and continued development. The firstphase encompassed training inavailable technology, classroommodeling of the technology, learning how toencourage studentparticipation, and initial feedback from experiencedinstructors. Thesecond phase of the program involved setting aside time in thenewinstructors’ schedules for designing and practicing lessons; mentoringbyexperienced faculty; videotaping practice sessions; encouragingreflection amongthe new instructors; and providing feedback on theirefforts.
Thefinal phase included the formal summer developmentalworkshop and severalactivities and programs regarding technologyintegration. These programs wereimplemented to ensure continued development and integration of technology inthe classroom and teaching repertoire. Cradler and Cradler’s (1995) findingsupported this approach that although one-time workshops help instructorsincorporate and integratetechnology; it takes a long-term program for true effectiveness.Therefore, continued development, training, and mentorship are essential for aneffective teacher’s development program.ConceptualFramework of the Study Theterm ICT as applied to education, are those technologies include computers, theInternet, broadcasting technologies (radio and13television), and telephony that canfacilitate not only delivery of instruction, but also learning processesitself.
Besides, ICT requires up-to-datehardware and software. Using up-to-date hardware and software resources is akey feature in the diffusion of technology (Gulbahar 2007) but a rareexperience in educational institutions. High-speed internet connection isanother prerequisite for integrating ICT into the teaching-learning situation.But unfortunately internet access is very poor. The use of ICT in the mathematics classroom haslong been a topic for consideration by mathematics educators. Some examples ofICT use in mathematics include: portables, graphic calculators and computerizedgraphing, specialized software, programmable toys or floor robots, spreadsheetsand databases. Studies have shown that a range of portable devices exists whichallow pupils to collect data, and manipulate it using spreadsheets anddatabases for work in numeracy. Some portable equipment also enables the studyof math to move out of the classroom and to incorporate fieldworkinvestigations (Moseley and Higgins 1999).
Many researchers havepointed out that a school’s ICT vision is essential to effective ICTintegration (Anderson & Dexter, 2000). Bennett (1996, p. 60) stressed the importanceof a “well-defined mission that describes technology’s place in education”. Inline with this idea, Ertmer (1999) wrote, “A vision gives us a place to start,a goal to reach for, as 14well as a guidepostalong the way” (p. 54). Also, Means and Olson (1997) recommend that teachersand schools must develop a vision before they make substantial investments inhardware and software.
In other words, users of technology must have afundamental belief in the value of innovation or the innovation is doomed tofailure. Teachers must have opportunities to study, observe, reflect, anddiscuss their practice.The rapid evolution ofinformation and communication technology (ICT) and Innovations of new values though solutions that meet new requirementsand inarticulate needs is changing the face of education and making informationuniversal. Realizing the effects of the ICT in the education system, theDepartment of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Department of Education providedmost of the schools with computer units and peripherals. Some of the teachersin these schools have undergone ICT trainings.
ICT has become an indispensabletool in enhancing the students’ learning capabilities for them to connect betweenthe content of the teacher tips and technology applications which inspire themto explore and expand their creativity with the use of technology. It shouldalso expand into the knowledge of the community, for their deeperunderstanding, engagement and involvement in realizing the importance oftechnology.ICT which refers to arange of technological tools and 15resources used to communicate,and to create, to disseminate, to store and manageinformation. Technologies do not refer to only thecomputers, but also broadly to Internet, broadcasting technologies (such asradio and television), telephones (including mobile phones), CDs and DVDs. However, this new technology could notreplace the teachers in the classroom. It is not a solution for all educationalproblems either (Wang & Woo, 2007). ICT is certainly an effective tool thatenables us to link various learning communities together in new and differentways (Tailor, 2000). It provides great possibilities for effectivecommunication between teachers and students in varying and innovative ways.
Teacher which referredtoas person who instills knowledge, attitudes and skills have been found to be major predictors of theuse of new technologies in instructional settings. The teachers’ beliefs aboutteaching and learning with ICT are central to integration.Mwelese and Wanjala(2014) indicate that to be successful in computer use and integration, the roleof the student, and their role as teachers in upgrading themselves towardsTechnology based instructions for more efficient, effective and meaningfulmathematics instruction.Hence the successful use of ICT into classroomlargely depends on teachers’ attitudes and belief concerning the whole process.In fact, it has been suggested that attitudes towards computers affectteachers’ use of 16computers in the classroom and thelikelihood of them benefiting from training (Kluever, et al, 1994). Some studieswants to find out on the adequacy ofICT instructional Material, thecapability of teachers in using ICT, constraints in the use of ICT in teaching– learning processes and provide suggested solutions on the constraintsencountered in the use of ICT in mathematics instruction at the same time it enhance researchers to employs an adeptfusion or hybrid technologies anchored on an artistic and systematic creationof activities intended to bring the 21st century learners to anoteworthy and unforgettable learning experiences. TheDepEd authorities formulated policies and programs,initiated projects for them to realized the importance of technology in theeducational world .This has also been done in Indonesia, Malaysia, Uzbekistanand Vietnam.
In Asia and the pacific, including emergingcountries, teachers inprimary, secondary and tertiary levels are being trained in the use of ICT ineducation with varying degree of scope. Most of the training programs carrygeneral objectives aimed at developing awareness, knowledge and skills ineither the use of computers in teaching and learning (IPS, 2003 17Figure 1Paradigmof the Study ( Input ) ( Process ) ( Output ) . ICT instructional materials and capability of teachers to use technology in grade 10 mathematics instruction .
Constraints encountered by teachers using ICT in grade 10 mathematics instruction . Descriptive Survey . Participant Observation .Questionnaire . Statistical treatment and analysis of data . Effective grade 10 mathematics instruction using adequate ICT tools and materials by well trained teachers .
Design strategic plan in solving constraints in the use of ICT in mathematics instruction 18Statement of the ProblemTheresearcher aim to develop ICT inMathematics Instructions among grade 10Learners in the public secondary schools of Burgos, SchoolsDivision of La Unionthat will identify, determine, suggest and develop particular technologies tofit the needs and desire of people moving around the educational world. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. Whatis the extent of adequacy of ICTinstructional materials? 2. Whatis the level of capability of teachers to use technology in mathematicsinstructions?3. Whatis the degree of seriousness of constraints encountered by teachers in the useof technology in mathematics instructions?4. Whatis the degree of effectiveness of solutions to solve or minimizethe constraints encountered by teachers in theuse of technology in mathematics instructions?Null Hypotheses The nullhypotheses of this research were the following:1. Thereis no significant difference between the perception on theadequacy of ICT instructional materials.
2. Thereis no significant difference between the perception on the capability of teachers to use technology inmathematics instructions.193. Thereis no significant difference between perceptionon the constraints encounteredby teachers in the use of technology in mathematics instructions.
4. Thereis no significant difference between perception on the effectiveness of solutions to solve orminimizethe constraints encountered byteachers in the use of technology in mathematics instructions.