Amrutkar et al 26 determined the sodium and potassium content present in water samples by flame photometry. The obtained statistical information for determination of concentration of sodium and potassium ions in water sample collected from river by flame photometric method conclude that concentration of the sodium present in the river water sample was more than potassium. When the concentration level of sodium cation in the human plasma decreases leads to cause hyponatraemia and when the concentration level was raised leads to cause hypernatraemia. The concentration of Na in water samples was ranging from 26 to 54 ppm and potassium was 2 to 11 ppm.Gupta et al 27 analysed the hand pump water quality in bandra.
He investigated parameters such as colour, temperature, turbidity, TDS, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium and calcium. The pH value of all water samples was ranging from 7.25 to 7.58 ,electrical conductivity values ranging from 1349 to 2200 ?S/cm. The total dissolved solids varied from 885 to 1480 ppm. The concentration of Na was varies from 145 to 316 ppm.
Potassium ranged from 0.4 to 1.4 ppm. The calcium ranging from 200 to 450 ppm.Javid et al 28 analysed the drinking water samples were collected from different villages of nisatta.
The chemically data shows that the values of investigated parameters was calcium ranging from 36 to 336 ppm. The magnesium varies from 20 to 260 ppm and sodium was 121 to 357 ppm. Therefore, the results shows that there was a great contamination in drinking water of the under studied villages and it is unfit for drinking purpose.Karpagam and Ramesh 29 demonstrated the ground water samples of bore wells, open wells and hand pump collected from different localities in chrompet area for the determination of Na , K, Ca content during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. In pre-monsoon calcium concentration were varying from 50 to 154 ppm and in post-monsoon it varies from 100 to 944 ppm. The potassium content during pre-monsoon was varying from 40 to 121 ppm and post-monsoon 96 to 310 ppm. The sodium content during pre-monsoon was 34 to 1587 ppm and in post-monsoon was 112 to 2396 ppm.Handa 30 elaborated the monsoon water for parameters such as pH, TDS, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.
The results shows that the value of pH varies from 5.5 to 6.8 with average around 6.13. The data shows that the dissolved mineral content was greatly affected by meteorological conditions. Among these minerals thePage 19result shows that calcium ions was generally the most prominent and have high concentration and also the sodium concentration was dominant.
But the concentration of potassium and magnesium mineral was much less than that of calcium ions.Saeed et al 31 explained the water samples of twenty different areas of faisalabad for the determination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium content in water. For the quality of water the other parameters such as pH, conductivity and TDS was also analyzed. Standard methods were used for the determination of physical and chemical properties of water samples. The parameters was investigated and result shows that the pH values was in the range of 7.12 to 7.
73. The value of conductivity was varied from 639 to 6690 ?S/cm. The values of total dissolved solids was in the range of 1260 to 6573 ppm. The concentration of sodium in water samples was varies from 19 to 55 ppm. The potassium ions was in the range of 16 to 48 ppm. The amount of calcium ions found to be between 32 to 100 ppm.
The magnesium ions was in the range from 9.72 to 81.1 ppm. He concluded from the result that in most of the samples the calcium and magnesium was within the permissible limits. The concentration of sodium and potassium ions was found to be the above the permissible limits of many samples.Biswajeet and Saied 32 investigated the quality of water samples collected from the different localities of maharastra.
The water quality parameters such as sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, pH, conductivity and TDS were selected for this analysis. The sodium content in water samples were found in the range of 6.20 to 34.48 ppm. The analysis of water samples indicates that potassium value varies between 1.
57 to 10.97 ppm. The range of calcium varies from 40.
08 to 100.20 ppm and the concentation of magnesium varies from 12.27 to 73.18 ppm. This result shows that water is suitable for human and cattle consumption.Nandkishor et al 33 examined the ground water of nearby villages of bandara city.
Ground water samples were analyzed for parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, TDS, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results were compared with water quality standards prescribed by WHO. In the present study pH ranged from 7.2 to 7.
9 and TDS ranged from 322 to 942 ppm. The electrical conductivity values was observed in the range of 672 to 1754 ?S/cm. In water samples calcium ranged from 92 to 480 ppm. The sodium and potassium contents in the investigated water samples were varied from 16 to 102 ppm and 0.5 to 9.2 ppm respectively. The concentration of magnesium was in the range from 47 to 126Page 20ppm. So the result concluded that the water is fit for domestic purpose but drinking water need treatments to minimize the contamination.
Neeraj et al 34 investigated water quality by measuring various quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), content of calcium and magnesium. The pH of all water samples was measured by pH meter. The value of electrical conductivity was determined by using conductometer. The value of total dissolved solids was measured with TDS meter.
The calcium content in water samples was determined by flame photometer. The magnesium ions in water samples was determined by EDTA titration. So the pH values of water samples was from 6.
3 to 7.8. The electrical conductivity values was in the range of 321 to 754 ?S/cm. The total dissolved solids values was in the range of 321 to 1338 ppm. The calcium in water samples was ranging from 65 to 100 ppm. The magnesium content in water samples was from 5 to 26 ppm. This study shows that ground water is the only source for people in the study area, and the results of the chemical analyses of the ground water indicate considerable variation.
Most of the water samples do not comply with standards for drinking purpose. The water quality in the investigated areas found to be suitable for drinking only in few locations.Ma’an 35 studied the effect of sewage water on ground water quality. Many quality parameters was analyse such as pH, electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, potassium and sulphates. According to data the minimum and maximum range of pH was 7.81 to 8.02 with mean value 7.52.
The mean values of pH refer to slightly alkaline nature of the ground water in this region. EC is also an important factor to determine the total soluble salts in the ground water. Minimum value 0.48 and maximum value 1.65 with mean value equal to 0.973. Sodium contents of the ground water for the study area range between 3.
22 and 44 ppm with mean value equal to 21.31 ppm. These values was within the permissible limits. The mean value of potassium was 1.49 ppm. This value refers to low levels for all samples compared with the permission level of potassium which is about 2-3 ppm. The mean value of calcium is 86.
65 ppm. This value is under the maximum permissible limit which was ranged between 75 and 200 ppm. The concentrations of sulphate begin with low levels in surface waters and increase in the deep ground waters. Permission levels of sulphate is about 250 ppm according to WHO levels. In this research, the minimum value is 18 ppm and maximum value is 177.6 ppm with mean value 91.35 ppm, so all the values of sulphate were within the allowed levels. Some of the parameters for the ground water samples in this study was higher than thePage 21permissible limits, established by WHO organization.
This may causing deterioration of ground water quality, making it unfit for irrigation use. The sewage water needs to treated before used in irrigate the fields.Bhalme and Nagarnaik 36 analysed the drinking water of different places. The study was based on the analysis of drinking water parameters in an Educational institute situated in Hingna MIDC area, Nagpur. In this paper, different authors’ papers was summarized on water analysis and their treatment processes in different region, which is helpful to know the different treatment processes and parameters used in the study.
The water samples were analysed for pH, Fluoride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Total Hardness, Chloride, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Alkalinity, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K) and Nitrate. The pH of all the samples were within limit (6 to 9.2), while EC of all the water samples were out of limit i.e. 300 ?S/cm. The alkalinity was greater than permissible limit 200 mg/l in 98% villages and only 2% villages had below than optimum limit.
The NO3- concentration was less than permissible limit (45 mg/l) in 64% villages whereas 26% samples showed higher concentration of NO3-. However, only 10% samples contain optimum level of nitrate. Moreover Na concentration was greater than permissible 50 to 60 mg/l limit in 98% water samples whereas K concentration was below the optimum 20 mg/l level in all the samples studied. It was concluded that the drinking water of villages of sanganer tehsil is not potable. To maintain quality of ground water, the continuous monitoring of physicochemical parameters should be done and can be used for cooking and drinking only after prior treatment. Due to increase in industrialization water quality of drinking water get decreases, and hence there is a need of proper analysis of water and prior treatment.Hamid et al 37 examined the physico-chemical analysis of water sources like storage tank, tube well and tap water collected at sampling points of Shakardara, Lachi and Kohat city in district Kohat, Khyber pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. pH in selected water samples varied in the range of 7.
9-8.5. Electrical conductivity (EC) actually measures the level of the salts ion in water.
The high value of electrical conductivity observed in the range between 345-2300 ?S/cm shows the presence of major cations and anions. Concentrations of Mg, Ca, K and Na in the samples were in the range of 121.1-229.1, 45.2-111.6, 6.2-18.
9 and 165-300 mg/l respectively. The WHO permissible limit of Mg is 150 mg/l, Ca is 75 mg/l, K is 10 mg/l and that of Na is 100 mg/l. After investigating and comparing different parameters with WHOPage 22guidelines, this study revealed that drinking water has been found contaminated in Shakardara, Khyber pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and it was concluded that ground water in Shakardara and Lachi showed more contamination as compared to Kohat city. It may be due to nearby high amount of minerals and salt ranges. Thus water should be checked for these contaminants before using for drinking, domestic and other sensitive purposes.Anwar et al 38 done the complete analysis of 15 drinking water samples was carried out to develop a data base on the quality of water being consumed in different areas of Abbottabad district. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of water samples of different localities was conducted to determine the exact amount of different pollutants present in water.
The drinking water samples were taken from the main water sources where maximum peoples were using them for drinking purpose. The pH value of water samples taken from the different places of Abbottabad district ranges from 6.5 to 8.84 and was slightly alkaline. Maximum TDS of well water found in Abbottabad district having value of the 664 mg/l while the minimum TDS value was found to be 198 mg/l in Abbottabad. The minimum value of calcium hardness was 0.160 mg/l found in well wall of Abbottabad and maximum value of calcium hardness was 0.
350 mg/l. Chloride found in water sample was 0.8 mg/l, high chloride value in water cause problems in after sewerage. Excess amount also changes the taste of drinking water and make it saline. The maximum range of chloride was 26 mg/l and no sample cross the barrier of WHO. So the water of Abbottabad district may be considered to be suitable for domestics uses.
The result on alkalinity of water samples show that the alkalinity found in well water sample is 300.4 mg/l, minimum alkalinity found in Abbottabad district water sample was 120 mg/l. The maximum range of alkalinity is 476 mg/l. Minimum turbidity found in Abbottabad district water sample was 1.74 NTU. The maximum range of turbidity is 20.
02 NTU. Drinking water collected from different areas of Abbottabad district was not found to be suitable for human health due to microbiological issues. The results indicated certain sources of water-borne diseases in drinking water, which are common in the people of a particular area. The results of the present research work showed that drinking water collected from different areas of Abbottabad district was not found to be suitable for human health due to microbiological issues.Marco et al 39 analyzed water of nebrodi mountain district Italy. The range of sodium in water samples were 9 to 170 ppm.
The potassium was found in water samples were 3 to 10 ppm. The calcium in the samples was from 16.8 to 95.2 ppm.