WilliamT. HarrisSpeech#1 OutlineJanuary29, 2018  Outline General Purpose Statement:  To InformSpecific Purpose Statement:  I will inform you of two marvels in thecosmos.Central Idea Statement:  Two elusive phenomena: dark matter anddark energy, are thought to make up more than 80% of the known universe.  I.                  INTRODUCTIONA.

   Everyyear we are hit an estimated 100,000 times by dark matter particles. B.    Understandingdark matter may help us learn the fate of our world.C.

    Iwill provide you with information from a number of websites on how dark matteraffects the universe.D.   Today,I will inform you on how dark matter:1.

Is made ofparticles that don’t absorb, or emit light.2. Accounts for themovement of stars and expansion of the universe. II.               BODYA.   Scientistsbelieve dark matter is made of non-baryonic matter.

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1. WIMPS (weaklyinteracting massive particles) are the foremost contender, having up to ahundred times the mass of a proton.a.      Sterileneutrinos should be considered, as well.

1)     Neutrinosare particles with a mass close to zero, that rarely interact with normal matter.b.     Neutrinoscome from the sun, but they pass right through us.c.      Thisinformation comes from www.space.com2. Dark matter canbe categorized as cold, warm, or hot.

This refers to velocity, not temperature.a.      Colddark matter most likely takes the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects, RobustAssociations of Massive Baryonic Objects, or Weakly Interacting MassiveParticles.b.     Warmdark matter is most likely made up of sterile neutrinos, or gravitinos.c.      Hotdark matters likely candidates are neutrinos.

d.     Thisinformation comes from www.phys.org3.  MACHOs are another possible component of darkmatter.a.      MassiveCompact Halo Objects are made of ordinary matter, such as: protons, neutrons,and electrons.

They may be neutron stars, or black holes.b.     Researchershave detected MACHOs via their gravitational effect on light from far awayobjects.c.      Thisinformation comes from www.

nasa.gov B.    Scientistsbelieve dark matter is responsible for the movement of stars in galaxies.1.

The rate of ouruniverse’s expansion seems to be speeding up.a.      Thisacceleration is thought to be caused by a mysterious force, called dark energy.b.     Darkenergy is theorized to act in an opposite manner of gravity.

c.      Thisinformation comes from science.nasa.gov2. Fritz Zwicky wasthe first astronomer to suggest the presence of dark matter.a.

      Thiswould explain the inconsistency between projected and detected rotation speedsof stars in the galaxy.b.     VeraRubin would later confirm the theory by observing that stars on the edge of theAndromeda galaxy moved faster than expected.

c.      Thisinformation comes from cosine.yale.edu3.

Two possibilitieson how the universe ends are called the big crunch and the big freeze.a.      Thebig freeze is a theory in which the universe would continue to expand,endlessly.b.     However,the big crunch states that one day the universe will cease its expansion and beginto retract.

c.      Thisinformation comes from www.bbc.com III.            CONCLUSIONA.

   TodayI have provided you with some insights on dark matter.1. Composition2. BehaviorB.    Concludingremarks