which each terminal has a unique
Radio Access Technology (RAT) (Tudzarov and Janevsk, 2011).  For the outside internet world, each of the
radio access technologies is counted as the link.  The IP technology is created to make sure necessary
control data for appropriate routing of IP packets associated to specific
application connections is delivered.  Furthermore,
to make sure accessible routing of packets are managed in agreement with the
given policies of the user (Tudzarov and Janevsk, 2011; Ravikumar and Sankar,
2017).

The success of 5G networks will
depend on the implementation of a number of new technologies. These will allow
the benefits of 5G to be fully noticeable, benefiting from its capability to
use a wide range of bandwidths and high data rates, amongst others things. The
new main technology components are new spectrum, massive MIMO, network slicing,
multi-connectivity and in-build support for cloud implementation and edge computing
(nokia, 2017).

Review: Massive MIMO and 5G

Massive MIMO which (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is an evolving area
of 5G technology that has been advanced from the current MIMO technology (Gupta and Jha, 2015). It is the advancing technology
of forthcoming networks, which is spectrum efficient, secure, robust, and efficient
in energy (Gupta and Jha, 2015).  This
component can be in essence defined as a wireless network that allows multiple
data signals to be concurrently transferred and obtained over the same radio
channel   (Mundy, n.d.) . Massive MIMO involves the
usage of larger antenna arrays at base stations than the number of mobile
communication systems per signalling resource, whereas the standard MIMO
networks use two or four antennas (Gupta and Jha, 2015; National Instruments,
2017).  Its purpose is to obtain all the
advantages of the MIMO on a larger scale (Gupta and Jha, 2015).

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Huge improvements in spectral efficiency and
quasi-orthogonal channel response is potentially achieved as a result of the
large number of base station antennas comparative to the number of mobile (National
Instruments, 2017). The settings would allow several more devices to be served
with the same frequency and time resources within a given cell compared to the
current 4G systems (Mitsubishi Electric, n.d.).  Tests in large scale fields trials on
massive MIMO have yet to be done in order to demonstrate its discernibility for
the widespread commercial utilisation (National
Instruments, 2017). However, recent discoveries show that it is possible to
achieve huge improvements in spectral efficiency in real time over the air
trials (National Instruments, 2017).
 Despite these findings, there is still
several more problems to be resolved before commercial massive MIMO networks
are exhibited.

Advantages of Massive MIMO

Massive MIMO has the ability to enhance the
radiated energy efficiency by 100 times and simultaneously enhance the capacity
of the order of 10 or more.  These
enhancement in capacity is attainable by using the spatial multiplexing
technique in Massive MIMO systems.  The
large number of antennas, allows the improvement in radiated energy efficiency
to be achieved, as it can be focused in small areas in the space (Gupta and Jha, 2015; Larsson et al., 2014) .

With
the help of low power and less costly components, massive MIMO systems can be
put together (Gupta and Jha, 2015). Massive MIMO systems uses hundreds of less
expensive amplifiers in regards to expensive ultra-linear 50-Watt amplifiers
since former has an output in the milliwatt range, which is much more
beneficial than the latter which are normally being implemented in conventional
systems (Gupta and Jha, 2015). Although, it uses
only a little antenna’s that are being supplied from high power amplifiers, it
has a significant effect, unlike the conventional array schemes. Expensive,
large number of items such as the large coaxial cable, are removed which is the
greatest progress 

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