Whenit comes to large scale manufacturing and commercialization of lead basedperovskite solar cells is that they may release lead into the environmentcausing significant environmental impact and has very low stability in ambientcondition. Hence, the overall process is carried out in nitrogen gasenvironment to avoid degradation.

In this context, future of PSC is based onlead free based perovskite solar cells, with maintaining the stringent criteriato match the optical and electrical properties of lead-halide perovskite1819.            One visible option for Pbreplacement is monovalent substitution of another group 14 metals, such as Geor Sn which have a similar electronics configuration as Pb. But also transitionsmetals, alkaline-earth metals and lanthanides can also be considered foralternative replacement of lead. 20 Germanium iodideperovskite (MAGeI3) has strong potential in photovoltaic applications.While germanium have very good optoelectronics properties with relativelysmooth morphology. Hence the device exhibits photocurrent density of 4 mA cm-2with absorption visible spectrum starts from 620 nm.

However, the poorperformance of the cell is due to the formation of Ge4+ ions byoxidation. But improving the stability issue and new optimization approaches overincreasing the PCE of germanium and tin halide perovskite is currently in theresearch focus of many groups of the perovsWhenit comes to large scale manufacturing and commercialization of lead basedperovskite solar cells is that they may release lead into the environmentcausing significant environmental impact and has very low stability in ambientcondition. Hence, the overall process is carried out in nitrogen gasenvironment to avoid degradation. In this context, future of PSC is based onlead free based perovskite solar cells, with maintaining the stringent criteriato match the optical and electrical properties of lead-halide perovskite1819.

            One visible option for Pbreplacement is monovalent substitution of another group 14 metals, such as Geor Sn which have a similar electronics configuration as Pb. But also transitionsmetals, alkaline-earth metals and lanthanides can also be considered foralternative replacement of lead. 20 Germanium iodideperovskite (MAGeI3) has strong potential in photovoltaic applications.While germanium have very good optoelectronics properties with relativelysmooth morphology.

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Hence the device exhibits photocurrent density of 4 mA cm-2with absorption visible spectrum starts from 620 nm. However, the poorperformance of the cell is due to the formation of Ge4+ ions byoxidation. But improving the stability issue and new optimization approaches overincreasing the PCE of germanium and tin halide perovskite is currently in theresearch focus of many groups of the perovskite community. Similarly, 21Tin halide perovskitewith the device configuration of Tio2/CH3NH3SnI3/spiro-OMeTADresults in enhancement of absorption visible spectrum 950 nm, featuring anideal bandgap of 1.

3 eV with PCE of 5.73%. But when compared to leadperovskite, tin halide perovskite has very low atmospheric stability.

18Another possible routefor lead free perovskite is the combination of higher valent metal cations andvacancies to accommodate the total charge neutrality, which leads to change instructure (A3B2X9)-type perovskite. Inreference 22, the authorsinvestigated that Methylammonium iodo bismuthate (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9(i.e.(A3B2X9)-type structure) is thepromising alternative for lead perovskite due to its excellent optoelectronicsproperties. It also shows a good performance with current density of 0.8 mA cm-2which is stable for 10 weeks under ambient condition. However, the powerconversion efficiency is only 0.2%.

  kite community. Similarly, 21Tin halide perovskitewith the device configuration of Tio2/CH3NH3SnI3/spiro-OMeTADresults in enhancement of absorption visible spectrum 950 nm, featuring anideal bandgap of 1.3 eV with PCE of 5.73%. But when compared to leadperovskite, tin halide perovskite has very low atmospheric stability.18Another possible routefor lead free perovskite is the combination of higher valent metal cations andvacancies to accommodate the total charge neutrality, which leads to change instructure (A3B2X9)-type perovskite.

Inreference 22, the authorsinvestigated that Methylammonium iodo bismuthate (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9(i.e.(A3B2X9)-type structure) is thepromising alternative for lead perovskite due to its excellent optoelectronicsproperties. It also shows a good performance with current density of 0.

8 mA cm-2which is stable for 10 weeks under ambient condition. However, the powerconversion efficiency is only 0.2%.