it comes to the usability goals related to the system design, a few issues were
found regarding the usability experience, for example the overall
‘effectiveness’ for the users when using the system is one of the key issues
that the system had, because it did not provide enough information on
instructions or help for the user, for her to be able to accomplish the tasks
on her own, by implementing the hints messages, help buttons and focus allocator,
this will improve the user experience for the users that have difficulty
understanding the questions asked.

addition to this issue is the complication of the system for the user, which
made it quite difficult for the user to complete, which relates to the
‘efficiency’ of the system. The best way to overcome such type of issue is to
implement a new feature by simplifying the wording of the questions to be able
to improve the time it takes for the task to be completed. According to Head (1999),
a good interface design is a reliable and effective intermediary that is able
to send the correct cues so that the task will be done – no matter how minor,
artful, or incidental the design might look to be”. Therefore, navigation is
also important to be implemented in the design for the GP system for the users
to be able to complete the task in a simpler and quicker way.

main goals of Human Computer Interaction is to produce a usable, effective,
efficient, safe and appealing online system, this will concentrate on how quick
the tasks needs to be achieved and also making sure that the user and the rest
of the users will like the system. Usability in general is an important concept
within HCI, to make sure that the online system will have a good usability, the
specialist responsible needs to follow these key issues;

Be aware of the key factors
such as social, psychological and organisational factors that could affect the
way people operate and make use of online systems.

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Create toll and techniques
that can assist designers in ensuring that the online system is suitable for the

Also to achieve an
effective, efficient and safe interaction in relation of the both Human
computer interaction and the group interaction

These need to be considered carefully when at the design
stage, it is important for the users not to have to change allot to be able to
use a system, it should be designed to match the user’s needs.

at current system, there are several issues that has been pointed out which

1.    No
Images- by having no images this would help the users to understand the

2.    Interface
is dull- plain background and not attractive

3.    Navigation-
tab are all over the place and make sure the navigation brings to the right

4.    Form
filling-  Question is too complicated for
the user to understand, no drop down options

5.    The
structure and layout is not clear- there is no flow

system used at the moment did not offer the best user experience for the users as
it left them with a feeling of boredom, frustration and an unpleasantness.

be able to overcome these negative outcomes our users experienced a new
developed system will be implemented using all the points required that were
collected from each user based on the data that was gathered using a gathering
method and to assure that  their
satisfaction and overall experience will be positive feelings, in addition to
make it clear for the users how filling out the questionnaire will benefit
them, to increase motivation. For them to find the new interface engaging,
satisfying, helpful and enjoyable is important which can increase motivation
for any user trying to complete the task. Booth 1989 stated that if the user
has a high degree of motivation behind completing the task then more effort
would be used in overcoming different problems and misunderstandings.

following has been proposed to improve on the interaction experience;

1.    Adding
image that has a meaning to question or the page. e.g. add a logo of the GP.

2.    Navigation
bar will be on the left hand side and will be attractive and there can be other
sub option added in the navigation.

3.    Interface
will be more attractive and meaningful.

4.    The
question will be simplified with radio button and a small text field to write
if others.

5.    The
structure of the system will go in a flow where the user will enter his/her
username and password and bring them to patient portal with multi buttons where
the users can select the required page by simply press the page buttons for
easy navigation.

Dix et al. 2004 states that, “Interaction involves at
least two participants: the user and the system. Both are complex, as we have
seen and are very different from each other in the way that they communicate
and view the domain and the task. The interface must, therefore, effectively
translate between them to allow the interaction to be successful”


encompasses the following aspects: functionality, efficiency, effectiveness,
satisfaction, special users, specific goals, and specific context of users.
Usability refers to the quality of the interaction in terms of parameters such
as time taken to perform tasks, number of errors made, and time to become competent
users (Zhang
et al., 2004). Alternatively, usability is a quality attribute that assesses
how easy user interfaces are to use. The usability evaluation stage is an
effective method by which a software development team can establish the
positive and negative aspects of its prototype releases, and make the required
changes before the system is delivered to the target users. From the user’s
perspective, usability is considered a very important aspect in the development
process as it can mean the difference between performing and completing a task
in a successful way without any frustration is not highlighted in website
design, then users will become very frustrated working with it.


example, according to Nielsen Shackel
(1997), people will leave the website:

If it is difficult to use;

If the users get lost on a website;

 (c) The information is hard to read;

it does not answer users’ key questions;

and lastly, if the homepage fails to defi ne the purpose and the goals of the

Usability rules the web. Simply stated, if the customer cannot find a product,
then he will not buy it. In addition, the web is the ultimate
customer-empowering environment. He who clicks the mouse gets to decide
everything. It is so easy to go elsewhere; all the competitors in the world are
but a mouse-click away” (Dix, Finlay, Abowd & Bealle, 2004). The
causal framework of usability to shows a relationship between task, user and
system characteristics as independent variables and user reaction as dependent
variable.  Various principles need to be
followed in order to support usability, making systems

principles are

Learnability: by which new users can begin effective interaction and achieve maximal

Flexibility: the multiplicity of ways the user and system exchange information;

Robustness: the level of support provided to the user in determining successful
achievement and assessment of goals;

Efficiency: once the user learns about the system can perform the tasks;

Memorability: how easily the user will remember the system functions, after a

time of not using it;

goal of interaction design is to create products that enable the user to
achieve their objectives in the best way possible.

interaction between a user and a product often involves elements like aesthetics,
motion, sound, space et. Aspects of interaction design: words-, button labels-
should be meaningful and easy to understand, visual representations – images,
topography and icons should supplement words to communicate with users,
physical objects or space- what physical objects do users interact with the
system? Is it accessible from a smartphone? Appearance- does it give a clue
about the product (Smith
& Green, 1980). Interaction designers develop
wireframes or protypes to layout interaction in the product.







Interactive Prototype for
Hospitalrun Redesign: User Reflection


Patient: Register and book
an appointment

traditional approach to seeking appointment with doctors is one of the few
things that I had wished could be done differently. Having to literally travel
and visit the place hoping that you would actually find fi the place is on or
even if the doctor is available was considerably a challenge, especially if a
person has to travel a longer distance. The problem deepens when a patient
fails to even secure an appointment with the doctor due to a long outside the
premise, which sometimes leave patients an attended to due to time limitations.
However, with this online booking, I feel like finally someone has answered my
wish. I can now interact and have my issues addressed whilst at home before the
actual visit, which is also guaranteed following the fact that I can schedule
appointment with the doctor based on certain grounds that are within the
doctor’s as well as my calendar.

interface, right from the ‘register’ to within various pages, it was relatively
simple and clear, which made it easy to go through and complete the process of
booking an appointment online. Navigation is an aspect that I have always
considered crucial when it comes to webpages due to the fact that I find it
demoralising having to deal with complex designs. However, just as it would
happen to quite a number of other people, I tend to look for information
relatively fast, for which was perfectly accounted by the clear, concise, and
easily understood navigation within the webpage; it was relatively easy to
locate an option that prompts for new booking.

though booking an appointment may have relatively easy, which I notice upon
completing it, I realised that I could have spent less time going through the
whole process could there be guidelines that direct new users through various
navigations. Having options that employ previous search histories and relevant
patient records to obtain patient-specific recommendations and direct new users
about how to book an appointment based on what he or she is looking for would
be make the entire process simple for users. However, I think the ‘popup’
window with appointment from was an integral feature that redirects the
attention of the user from the congested surface with relatively many pages to
differentiate to a simple one page that only prompt for answers. In conclusion,
registering and booking appointment was made easy by navigations that were
clear, concise and easily understandable.


Doctor: logging in the
system and reviewing patient records then requesting for more information



are many factors that were definitely considered to produce such good level of
clarity and simplicity, amongst other features that the design offers to users.
The development factors, including platform constraints, tool kits and
components libraries, which are normally oriented towards improving visual
communication, produced an interface design that has more quality feature
regarding visibility. Right from the ‘log in’ platform, the design of the pages
is organised; there is consistency, well organised screen layout, relationships
between various pages and navigability are some of the factors that I noticed
to have improved the organisation of interface. Regarding consistency, the
design features good internal, external, and real-world consistencies that
feature different kinds of items and behaviour that have their own special
appearance. The colour use in most parts of the design provide not only visual
effects, but also real-world consistence in which users can relate features of
the design with real-world experiences, observation and perception. For
example, whilst sending a message to a patient that had booked an appointment
early and inquire for more information, the severity colours; green, yellow,
and red; induces the perception of urgency and importance in the minds of users
at both ends to optimise the accuracy and reliability of information that is
sent and received. I believe that this is one of the features that make the
design more productive in clinical context.

the screen layout of the interface that made it easy to locate various feature
due to its use of a grid structure, standardised layout, and group related
layout, I think the clear, consistent, and strong relationships between various
elements made location of menus and dialogue boxes relatively easy. Due to this
screen layout, I was able to easily locate information about patient bookings
with respect to dates and time that made it very simple to understand issues
for which these patients seek solutions and respond appropriately with
optimised ease. Navigability techniques that feature in the interface also
improved its usability. With ‘popup window’, dialogue boxes, bulleted items, and
well-structured forms and tables, the interface an initial focus on patients
for the viewer’s attention, direct attention to important or secondary items
that further simplifies navigation and make the entire process simpler. For
example, after navigating and locating a booking about a patient, clicking on
the view provides a popup window that offers information in table form and then
allow for commencing a messaging conversation with the patient. Therefore, I
think logging into the interface, reviewing patient’s information and inquiring
for more information was relatively simple due to various features in the
interface design that I have mentioned earlier in this and the previous









Patient Administrator:
logging in the system and viewing patient record history





 As a patient administrator, good
administrative record keeping practices are some of the areas that I consider
crucial to the overall task or responsibility completion. To improve patients’
experience as well services that are offered to them, it is imperative that
track records are kept appropriately to inform any necessary adjustment to
their plans. Also, a good record keeping practice makes it relatively easy to
hold people accountable and responsible for their actions, which then optimise
the level of efforts that they put into serving patients. As I was logging into
the patient administrator system, I realised that having records about a
patient in a central location is not only the positive side of the system but
also the fact that it was relatively easy to locate various items and dialogue
boxes and navigate various pages. Navigability techniques that feature in the
interface also improved its usability. The dialogue boxes, bulleted items, and
well-structured forms and tables, allowed the interface initial focus on a
patient, directed my attention to important or peripheral items that further
simplified navigation and made the entire process simple.








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