Wastes Waste Master Plan Project (KAAP) carried out

Wastes that donot fall into the concept of hazardous and harmful waste from public placessuch as houses, gardens, parks and picnic areas, which do not form waste withindustrial contents, are generally referred to as domestic waste. Daily routineactivities are classified into hazardous and harmful waste class which canoccur in the aftermath house environment. The amount of waste per capita in ourcountry is 0.6 kg per day, and 1 kg of domestic solid waste is produced onaverage. According to this, it is estimated that about 27,000 tons of domesticsolid waste per year is produced between 55,000 to 60,000 tons per day onaverage. Turkey Statistical Institute (TSI) in Turkey in 2008, according todata collected from the municipal waste collection and transport about 25million tons of waste;·        41.

3%were in the municipal waste,·        9.3%were in the metropolitan municipality garbage,·        1.4%in other municipal garbage,·        1%was burned openly,·        0.4%were buried,·        0.

2%was poured by duck and lake,·        44.9%of them are in regular storage areas,·        1,1%were taken to composting plants and processed in appropriate processes.Municipal wastes are generally classified asnon-hazardous and consist of wastes originating from houses or content orstructurally similar.Economic growth in the industrial area in Turkey;urbanization, population growth, waste types, need mass both volume instead ofestablishing a separate waste management system for each type of wasteresulting increase in the value of all the waste into space reveals the needfor an integrated approach. According to the results of the study on thedetermination of the domestic waste content in the scope of the Solid WasteMaster Plan Project (KAAP) carried out in 2006, 34% of the domestic wastes areorganic wastes from the kitchen, about 22% are non-combustible materials, 19%while the remaining 25% constitutes packaging waste.

These results also showthe contribution that municipal wastes will provide to the economy of thecountry as a result of decomposing and recycling or returning before domesticwaste is sent to collection centers.2.1Household wastes have various damages to economic,environmental and human health.

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Non-removable andnon-stored wastes cause environmental pollution to a considerable extent,affecting public health in a negative way. After the rains, thewaters leaking from the garbage fields cause the groundwater to pollute.Thereare odor problems in garbage poured areas. In case of throwing thewaste pills into trash, soil, seas, rivers and sewers, or burning them, theheavy metals they contain may pollute the environment.Waste oils; reducesoxygen in water.

Microorganisms that are fed with waste oil in water areformed, and these microorganisms reach carcinogenic people through eating fishand other living things. Frying oils; when it is poured into thesea, lakes and rivers, it prevents the oxygen transfer from air to water bycovering the surface of the water, causing the death of fishes and other livingthings. When the frying oil is poured into the sink, it adheres to the drainsystem, causing the wastes in the sewage pipe to stick to the pipe wall,causing the pipe to become narrowed and the sewer system to become unusableover time. Used frying oils cause pollution of groundwater, which is animportant source of drinking water. Finished Tires;mosquitoes and rats, as well as the spread of epidemic diseases. These massescause fires that can not be extinguished for days.

These fires spread tons oftoxic gases such as DIOXIN-FURAN in a black cloud in the atmosphere. Theseatmospheric pollutants cause direct pollution of human health as well ascontamination of nearby land and water. In developingsocieties, there is a right ratio between consumption habits of people and thequantity and composition of consumer goods solid wastes.

Particularly in recentyears, with the incidents of migration from the villages to the cities, theproduction in our country has decreased and the consumer society has begun tobecome. Inrecent years, together with the developing packaging industry, the productionof materials which enables the purchase of products in very small quantitiesand which will ensure the long-term storage of the received products has begun.As a result of the good disposal of these packages, environmental pollutionoccurs, which in turn has an effect on the minus both biologically andeconomically.

A paper handkerchief that has been left to the nature can bedestroyed in 3 months, an apple garbage in 6 months, a glass bottle in 4000years. Forthis reason, the recovery of these packages is very important. Because of therecycling of these wastes, natural resources are protected and at the same timeenergy saving is provided. However, the amount of waste in the environmentstarts to decrease and it means investment for the future and economically.3.1Recycling is therecycling of wastes that can be reevaluated through various physical andchemical processes to be converted into secondary raw material and included inthe production process.

It can be defined as recycling waste materials that arenot used in any way by another definition, and recycling them as raw materialsthrough various recycling methods. The purpose of recycling; to prevent theunnecessary use of resources and to reduce the amount of waste garbage togetherwith the separation of waste at the source. Recycling and reuse of materialssuch as iron, steel, copper, lead, paper, plastic, rubber, glass, electronicwaste will prevent the depletion of natural resources. This situation; it willalso reduce the amount of foreign exchange paid to imported scrap material tomeet the needs of countries, and will save a great deal of the energy used.

Forexample, the use of recycled paper in paper manufacture can be avoided byreducing air pollution by 74-94%, water pollution by 35%, water use by 45%, andthe addition of one ton of waste paper to paper pulp. Energy saving isachieved because the number of industrial processes in recycled materialdecreases. In the recycling of metal beverage boxes, the metal is directlymelted and converted into a new product. In this way, neither the mineral oreused for production nor the processes applied for the purification of the mineare required. In this way an energy saving of 96% can be achieved by recyclingan aluminum can. Similarly, the energy required to recycle the paper separatedin solid wastes is up to 50% of that required for normal operations. In thesame way, glass and plastic waste can be recycled in a considerable amount ofenergy saving.

Recyclingis a productive economic investment in the long run. Reductions in crude oiland rapid depletion of natural resources can lead to economic problems, and atthis point recycling will be positive on the economy. It will provide newbusiness opportunities and provide future generations with access to naturalresources. Onthe other hand, as mentioned above, it will also be possible to significantlyreduce environmental pollution by reducing the amount of solid wastes to bedisposed of for recycling purposes.

The reduction of the amount of solid wasteand volume is a great advantage especially for countries where there is notenough space to regularly dispose of solid waste. When theserecyclable wastes are mixed with normal garbage, the secondary materialsproduced from these materials are of much lower quality and may cause problemsin the cleaning process. Therefore, the most important step of the recyclingprocess is the separation at the source and the separate collection.

 

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