v reducing friction between hull and water. Bubbles

v Features & Technologies

The transportation of
crude oil by vessel was originated approximately from 1850. The first oil tankers were single hull and two
sail-driven tankers. In the early 1970s a Very Large Crude Carrier
(VLCC) may have taken two years to build but today modest VLCC can be built in
eight to nine months. Even at that time hundreds
of crude oil vessels were moving around the world without any trouble with the
power of modest technological improvements. 

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·        
Increase the size and capacity

The
larger size vessels lead to fall the price of shipping so that the price of oil
barrel has fallen to roughly 5-10 percent. Therefore, vessel producers increase
the tanker size every year. Usually current ultra-large crude carrier (ULCC) is
designed around 1,300 feet long and capacity of 500,000 DWT.

·        
Air lubricant system

Mitsubishi company designs their modest crude oil ships using
that air lubricant system. This technology has reduced 13% of fuel consumption
by reducing friction between hull and water. Bubbles are generated by shipping
and then create a layer of air between the ship and the water, reducing the
drag drastically and increase speed and efficiency.

 

·        
Automated crude oil tank
cleaning

This technology
can be used to completely clean the sludge from the interior of large oil tanks
and then wash the crude oil system clearly. The technology saves the cost of
manpower as well as risk of the workers. Crude oil ships have been introduced
the technology in year of 2007.

·        
Automated Navigation
System

since
2010, crude oil ships used advanced automatic navigation system which allows to
sail 24 hours a day without manual operation. Especially these are used in VLCC
carries.

·        
Motion detectors

This
technology enables ships to navigate through long beach channels safely.
Therefore, this allow ships to arrive to the port with deeper drafts and
heavier load. So, this technology leads to less pollution, less congestion and
better use of port infrastructure.

 

·        
LR tankers

The
specific feature of Long Range (LR) class oil tanker is that ships carry both
crude oil and refined products. After the year of 2000 large ships (LR) demand
has been increased because these type ships can access largest ports and take
more benefits through that competitive advantage.  The speed of the crude oil ship has been
gradually increased due to the new technologies and high power of engines with
the time. In 2000, VLCC average speed was 14.5 and in today it is around 18.00.

v  Prices and Lifetime

Prices
of crude vessel directly depend on size, capacity and some other features such
as technologies which used in the vessel. 
This table shows the market price of branded vessels in 1985 & 2005
which are basically correlated size (DWT)

According to the worldwide vessel data in 2005, average
lifetime of an oil tanker was 10 years. Among these, 31.6%  were under 4 years and 14.3% were over 20
years old.

This table shows the life time of
large size of crude oil ships. But today ship manufacturers expect more than 35
years life time from crude oil ships because now they use corrosion resistant
steel for hull and also to tanker compartments.