Utilization and finite natural resource on the surface

Utilization
of water means the use of water to meet our daily needs. Water is not only used
by human beings, but also by animals, plants and other organisms. Man on earth
is only living creature which makes great changes on earth with using his mind.
Man uses all natural resources which are provided by earth. These natural
resources include soil, water, forest and minerals etc.   Fresh water is most precious and finite
natural resource on the surface of the earth. Water is utilized for different
purposes like irrigation, drinking and domestic, industrial, recreational and
environmental activities. It is estimated that more than 70 percent of water is
used for irrigation at the global level. This use of water is not sustainable
because a huge amount of water is wasted in the process of irrigation. Nearly
22 percent of total available freshwater is used for industrial purpose. It
includes hydroelectric power generation plants, thermoelectric power plants;
manufacturing plants etc. the discharge of untreated water from industries
causes water pollution. It includes discharged solutes and increase water
temperature. About 8 percent of worldwide water is used for domestic purpose.
It includes drinking, bathing, cooking, toilet flushing, cleaning, laundries
and gardening. The basic domestic water requirement is estimated by Peter
Gleiuk at around 50 liters per person per day excluding water for gardening.
The water which is used for drinking purpose is generally known as potable
water because drinking water is the water which is full of sufficient high
quality. So we consume it without any immediate or long term harm. Some other
uses of water are recreational and environmental. The percentage of these uses
is very less but should be increased for sustainable development.

Concept of water quality

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Water
quality refers to the characteristics of a water supply that will influence its
sustainability for a particular use, like how well the quality meets the needs
of users. It is defined by some physical, chemical and biological
characteristics (FAO, 1989). According to Olifants River Water Supply System
water quality report, 2011 water quality is a set of physical, chemical,
biological and aesthetic properties of water which depict its fitness for
different uses like drinking, domestic, industrial, recreational and
environmental. These properties are controlled by constituents which are either
dissolved or suspended in water. Water quality is determined by the activities
which are practiced on the catchment, the land use and the geology. According
to United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization
(1996) water quality is a term which is used to express the sustainability of
water to sustain different uses. In other words water quality is a range of
variables which limit water use. Any particular use will have certain
requirements for the physical and chemical characteristics of water.

Concept of water Conservation

As
we all know water is an essential resource but many of us think that water is
unlimited, but it is not true. Actually fresh water is a finite resource and
becoming scarce day by day. Lakes and rivers are drying up due to a warming
climate, rapid urbanization and water pollution. These factors are putting
enormous pressure on the quality and quantity of our surface and ground water
resources. Hence Water conservation is a key element which can alleviate the
water scarcity crisis on regional, national and global level (Sanchari Pal,
2016). Water Conservation is a process which includes different activities like
policies, programs, strategies and campaigns to manage water and other related
natural resources sustainably to meet the present and future needs of human
beings and other organisms which relies on water. Water conservation is
associated with the management of water resources in the situation of water
scarcity. It includes all policies, managerial measure or users practice that
aims to conserve or preserve or save water resources. Water conservation also
combats the degradation of water resources including its quality. In other
words it is concluded that preservation and increase in water quality are the
two essential components of water conservation.

Water Resources Management

Water
resources management includes different activities like scientific, technical,
institutional management, legal and operational activities which are required
to plan, develop, operate and manage water resources thus water resources
management follows an integrated approach according to its nature. “Integrated Water Resources Management
(IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management
of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant
economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the
sustainability of vital ecosystems” (WSSD,2002). According to Barkin &
King (1986); Tortajada (2004) describes in their study that Integrated Water
Resources Management (IWRM) has been implemented from last several decades.
There are some great attempts have been done to implement IWRM in different
regions of the globe. We can see the early version of IWRM when Tennessee
Valley Authority began to develop the water resources for that region (Barkin
& King, 1986; Tortajada, 2004). Integrated Water Resources Management is
also described by Global Water Partnership in 2000 as “A process that promotes the coordinate development and management of
water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic
and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the
sustainability of vital ecosystems vital ecosystem” (GWP, 2000).