Utilizationof water means the use of water to meet our daily needs. Water is not only usedby human beings, but also by animals, plants and other organisms.
Man on earthis only living creature which makes great changes on earth with using his mind.Man uses all natural resources which are provided by earth. These naturalresources include soil, water, forest and minerals etc.
Fresh water is most precious and finitenatural resource on the surface of the earth. Water is utilized for differentpurposes like irrigation, drinking and domestic, industrial, recreational andenvironmental activities. It is estimated that more than 70 percent of water isused for irrigation at the global level. This use of water is not sustainablebecause a huge amount of water is wasted in the process of irrigation. Nearly22 percent of total available freshwater is used for industrial purpose.
Itincludes hydroelectric power generation plants, thermoelectric power plants;manufacturing plants etc. the discharge of untreated water from industriescauses water pollution. It includes discharged solutes and increase watertemperature. About 8 percent of worldwide water is used for domestic purpose.It includes drinking, bathing, cooking, toilet flushing, cleaning, laundriesand gardening. The basic domestic water requirement is estimated by PeterGleiuk at around 50 liters per person per day excluding water for gardening.The water which is used for drinking purpose is generally known as potablewater because drinking water is the water which is full of sufficient highquality.
So we consume it without any immediate or long term harm. Some otheruses of water are recreational and environmental. The percentage of these usesis very less but should be increased for sustainable development.Concept of water qualityWaterquality refers to the characteristics of a water supply that will influence itssustainability for a particular use, like how well the quality meets the needsof users. It is defined by some physical, chemical and biologicalcharacteristics (FAO, 1989). According to Olifants River Water Supply Systemwater quality report, 2011 water quality is a set of physical, chemical,biological and aesthetic properties of water which depict its fitness fordifferent uses like drinking, domestic, industrial, recreational andenvironmental.
These properties are controlled by constituents which are eitherdissolved or suspended in water. Water quality is determined by the activitieswhich are practiced on the catchment, the land use and the geology. Accordingto United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization(1996) water quality is a term which is used to express the sustainability ofwater to sustain different uses. In other words water quality is a range ofvariables which limit water use. Any particular use will have certainrequirements for the physical and chemical characteristics of water.
Concept of water ConservationAswe all know water is an essential resource but many of us think that water isunlimited, but it is not true. Actually fresh water is a finite resource andbecoming scarce day by day. Lakes and rivers are drying up due to a warmingclimate, rapid urbanization and water pollution.
These factors are puttingenormous pressure on the quality and quantity of our surface and ground waterresources. Hence Water conservation is a key element which can alleviate thewater scarcity crisis on regional, national and global level (Sanchari Pal,2016). Water Conservation is a process which includes different activities likepolicies, programs, strategies and campaigns to manage water and other relatednatural resources sustainably to meet the present and future needs of humanbeings and other organisms which relies on water. Water conservation isassociated with the management of water resources in the situation of waterscarcity. It includes all policies, managerial measure or users practice thataims to conserve or preserve or save water resources. Water conservation alsocombats the degradation of water resources including its quality. In otherwords it is concluded that preservation and increase in water quality are thetwo essential components of water conservation.Water Resources ManagementWaterresources management includes different activities like scientific, technical,institutional management, legal and operational activities which are requiredto plan, develop, operate and manage water resources thus water resourcesmanagement follows an integrated approach according to its nature.
“Integrated Water Resources Management(IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and managementof water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultanteconomic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising thesustainability of vital ecosystems” (WSSD,2002). According to Barkin &King (1986); Tortajada (2004) describes in their study that Integrated WaterResources Management (IWRM) has been implemented from last several decades.There are some great attempts have been done to implement IWRM in differentregions of the globe. We can see the early version of IWRM when TennesseeValley Authority began to develop the water resources for that region (Barkin& King, 1986; Tortajada, 2004). Integrated Water Resources Management isalso described by Global Water Partnership in 2000 as “A process that promotes the coordinate development and management ofwater, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economicand social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising thesustainability of vital ecosystems vital ecosystem” (GWP, 2000).