University of SunderlandAssessment cover sheet and feedback form                                                 Contents:            Executive summary……………………………………………………………….…….3Introduction……………………………………………………………………….…….4 Overview of a Chinese company…………………………………………………….4General about the Company in the USA…………………………………………….5Cultural Differences…………………………………………………………………….6China’s culture………………………………………………………………………..6 The culture of  the USA ………………………………………………………………8Differences between the two cultures………………………………………………..10What the managers must look out for?……………………………………………………………….11Trompenaar and Hampden-Turner’s Seven Dimensions of Culture………………11Sequential Time versus Synchronous Time…………………………………………14.Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………..16Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….………17            List of References……………………………………………………………………….18Executive summary.This research was conducted to analyze the culture of China and the USA and the differences between them.As it is known China is an Asian country and its culture is opposite to the USA’s culture. However, a Chinese restaurant named Mr. Lee is planning to construct a joint venture with Mc Donald’s in the USA. It is apparent that the company will face some cultural barriers here. This report will present several recommendations in order to overcome them. Moreover, these two cultures will be analyzed by using Hofstede’s 6 dimensions of culture. Then, seven dimension of culture will be clarified.1.Introduction.1.1 Overview of Chinese company.There is Mr. Lee that has a popular fast-food company in center of China, specially beef noodle soup and the other types of fast meals. Headquarter of them is in Beijing. California Beef Noodle King U.S.A is the oldest name of the chain. In 1988 California Chinese-American opened the first fast-food franchise in Beijing, Famous “Mr. Lee” come from Li Beiqi name.The main part of that company logo can remind the face of Li, likewise the design of organization of KFC Colonel Sandres  logo.  In these days many and many north-eastern Chinese cities are inviting over hundred types of franchises  for examples The most popular places are including Shanghai, Nanjing, Tianjin Harbin, Changchun, Qingdao and also Shenyang. Without any hesitation, this company admits computing as the same line with KFC and McDonald’s with reasonable prices and more appeal to Chinese flavors. The Californian Chicken consists of the things that are all in China and have not Californian products.  This Chinese Noodle House opened its five hundred branches, and nearly the biggest fast food brand throughout China. It inspires from American burger bars, restaurants and cafes, and Chinese words are written in the decorations. By these the designers desire to ensure the customers with a distinctive and interesting dinner.The entity opened its first branch in Australia, Burwood, in 2016,June.  1.2 General about the company in the USA.An American well-known hamburger and fast food restaurant chain is MC Donald’s. In 1940 Richard and Maurice McDonald founded it as a barbeque restaurant in the USA, California, San Bernardino.  Their business was organized  again in 1948 as a hamburger stand. In 1953, in Phoenix, Arizona, they opened the first franchise utilizing the arches logo. From 1955, a businessman Ray Kroc began working as a franchise agent and later he bought the chain from the brothers. By the beginning of 2018, they planned to move its headquarters to Chicago.  Nowadays this company is considered as one of the world’s biggest restaurant chains. About sixty-nine million consumers are served in a day in more than 100 countries across 36900 outlets as of 2016. The enterprise sells hamburgers, cheeseburgers, chicken products, French fries, breakfast meals, soft drinks, milkshakes, wraps and desserts. Since consumer tastes changed and they were criticized for unhealthy food, the entity changed its menu including salads, fish, smoothies and fruit. Either a franchise, an affiliate or the corporation rules the restaurant. The corporation earns its revenue from the rent, royalties and fees which are paid by the franchises, likewise sales. In 2012, BBC reported Mc Donald’s as the world’s second biggest private employer after Walmart. 2. Cultural differences 2.1. China’s culture Chinese culture is a group of values which includes social interaction among the common Chinese people and stays unchangeable for a long time. The Culture of China is rich in national style and shaped in national of China over 5000 years. The enclosed geographical surroundings ensured Chinese culture with natural benefits to be stable and independent. This Culture is grandly effected by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism (Mengyu Li 2008).Chines people are likely to be reserved. However,  they are hospitable. They prefer collectivism rather than individualism ( Wu 2008). Family is vitally essential in Chinese society. Young people respect elders and look after them. People do their best to help others. In order to save face they do so since sowing face is critically vital in this culture. They appreciate order. Chinese people wear conservative clothes. Urban people usually dress the clothes that are in western style. People still wear pantsuits in rural areas which was once a symbol of China’s Mao Tse Tung era. Chinese people greet with a little bow or nod and also a handshake. After introductions the full name of the person is introduced. Chinese people would rather keep distance with whom they do not know. They do not accept touching with strangers or even new acquaintances.People primarily speak Mandarin Chinese, Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity and Islam are the main religions.The number of ordinary older Chinese people had better talk to their friends, relatives and neighbours to enjoy the life.There are three foundations of Chinese Culture: Traditional Chinese Culture, Marxist Philosophy, the influence of western culture.Now we will analyze Chinese Culture by Hofstede’s six dimensions of Culture (Hofstede G. 2009).Six dimensions:Process-oriented versus results oriented. Process-oriented cultures are ruled by technical and bureaucratic routines. The latter by a common concern for outcomes, China is a results-oriented country.Job-oriented versus employee-oriented. The first one aims responsibility for the employee’s job performance only, the second one assumes a wide responsibility for the well-being of their members. When it comes to Chine, its culture  is employee-oriented;Professional versus parochial. In Professional culture, people identify with their profession, in parochial they take their identity from the company they work for. China refers to the former;Open systems versus closed systems. This dimension refers to the ordinary style of internal and external communication and to the ease with which outsiders and newcomers are admitted. Chinese have closed system like stability.Tight versus loose control systems. This harmony dimension is determined with the punctuality and formality. Chinese people are extremely punctual.Pragmatic versus normative. This dimension expresses the changeable or unchangeable way of  interacting with others especially with customers. Chinese people are polite. They do not communicate rigidly with customers. They are pragmatic.2.2. Culture of the USA.The United States is a multicultural country including of most 300 million people of different race and cultural heritage. According to Jodie R. Gorrill M.A (2007), American culture consists of a very strong sense of regional and ethnic identity that is defined by a lot of subcultures and effected by the country’s large geographical and regional diversities. Americans are originally from a number of various countries. Their customs, traditions and foods are diverse. However, they do obtain a lot of the same values. They think about individual freedoms, equal opportunities, fair treatment, private ownership of property and education. American culture is identified through these values.Nearly seventy percent of Americans are religious group members. Most people came to this country so as to acquire free worship.Americans prefer individualism comparing to other cultures. They put emphasizes on individual initiative and personal achievement. They value independence and self-reliance exceptionally.American people are task centered. The main purpose of communication is, therefore, to exchange information, facts and opinions. In the USA, people deal with conflict directly and openly. For this reason, American people never hesitate to say “no” and can criticize others directly among public.Equality is a significant element of American culture. American citizens have equal rights, equal obligations and equal opportunities. They do not appreciate using titles. Even president is called using Mr.If we analyze American Culture according to Hofstede’s six dimensions of culture (2009), firstly, Americans are results-oriented. They turn their spotlight upon getting the best results in the quickest time. They consider time as money. Secondly, they are job-oriented which means they demand employees’ job performance. Thirdly, American citizens attempt to find workplace from well-known companies. For this reason, they are characterized as parochial. Furthermore, this type of culture is open-system. They accept newcomers easily. One example of this can be notional diversity. Moreover, punctuality is a significant part of their etiquette, for example, scheduled appointments and meetings must be attended on time. Otherwise, They accept this as a sign of disrespect. Their control system is light. Finally, Americans are normative. They have rigid interaction with other.2.3. Differences between two cultures.As it seems that the culture of Chinese like a typical oriented culture is notably difference from American culture that is in a position like occidental. The most sharply distinictive aspects are standards, aesthetic orientation, religious belief, culture, image, geography and path of life between them (Xiantao  Zhang 2010).The most noticeable thing that in 1994 sharp distinctions was shown between American and also Chinese cultures by Chinese-American Zhang Dongpan.   There are some examples: It is emphasized clearly as active mastery in human-nature relatives, on the other hand, Chinese Culture gives special attention to be passive acceptance of fate by searching nature’s harmony.It has tendency in culture to be affected with external practical jobs and things’ world. Whereas traditional culture of Chinese mentions inner experiences of meaning and feeling.It is emphasized by an open view of the world American culture is under the change and development. On contrast, traditional Chinese culture was divided by a closed world view, harmony and prizing stability;Primary faith in rationalism is placed by American culture and orients towards future. However, traditional culture of Chinese is emphasized as resting upon kinship ties and past orientation of traditions.Horizontal dimensions of interpersonal relatives are given attention in American, whereas traditional Chinese culture placed more and  more weight  to vertical interpersonal relationship.Sole personality is valued in culture of Americans. On contrast, traditions of Chinese culture weighed mostly to duties of people to family clan and state.3. What the managers must look out for? 3.1 Seven dimensions of culture of Trompenaar and Hampden-Turner.It was contended by Charles Hampden-Turner that huge number of differences are between the cultures of nations. Also the process of doing business and controlling organizations is influenced by them. Whereas in this context national culture is explained as a simple way in which one group of people resolves these problems and reconciles hesitations (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1997, page 6).Trompenaars and Hampden- Turner have clearly defined many cultural aspects. They are (SergiuBalan 2013):1) Universalism versus particular (Rules versus relationships)From the theory of Trompnaars, in many cultures it is adhered by local inhabitants to the stands that relations agreed universally between them are prescribed laws, rules, general values and obligations. As a fact is in major cultures, on contrast, private relatives come always, the day before all laws and rules, and also major obligations to each others that you face in people determine the behavior of people.  Not the most noticeable cultures are U.S.A, Canada and Switzerland, whereas China, Russia and India are typical major cultures.               Typical universal cultures are Switzerland, U.S.A. and Canada; typical particular cultures are Russia, China, India.  Individualism versus communitarianism(the group versus the individuals).The people in individuals’ cultures are proved to be more essential than group.  In the sphere of cultures, the group is considered to be more important than the personal. Relating to a group takes care of more than independence and individual freedom. Being  to U.S.A, Israel, Canada and Romania. On the other hand, Egypt and India are the most communitarian countries.        Neutral versus Emotional ( the level and range of feelings expression) In neutral culture, emotions are controlled. People let their actions to be affected by reason than sentiment. They never let others be aware of their feelings. In the second one, they are allowed to express their feelings and impact their decisions. Examples of the former are Sweden, the Netherlands, Finland and Germany. Emotional culture examples are Poland, Italy, France, Spain ( Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1997,pp.70-80)Specific versus Diffuse (the level of involvement).In specific centered culture, people consider their lives as a group of parts to remain separate.  In the second type of culture, people are more holistic. They see the diverse features of their lives as separate.  Specific cultures are: USA, Switzerland, Germany, Scandinavian  countries. Examples of diffuse cultures: Argentina, Spain, Russia, India and China.Achievement versus Ascription (how status is viewed)  In an achievement-centered culture, people’s worth is assessed relying on their actions   and performance. In a status ascribed culture, people take it from birth, age, gender or wealth. The USA, Canada, Australia and Scandinavian countries are examples of achievement cultures. Ascription culture examples are France, Italy and Japan ( Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1997, pp. 101-119) .Sequential time versus synchronous time orientation (how people understand and manage the passage of time)In the former culture, people suppose time as sequential, inflexible and to assign different importance to past, present and future. Sequential-time cultures are: Germany, the UK and the USA.In the second culture, people see the time as interlocked periods. This type of culture examples are Japan, Argentina and Mexico (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1997, pp. 119-138).Internal direction versus outer direction (the understanding of the relation among people and their natural environment)In the former culture, people consider nature as a complex mechanism that is immense, but can be controlled if they have the right expertise. In the second type, people have an organic perspective of nature. This is a holistic point of view.3.2 Sequential time versus synchronous time.People are apt to consider time as sequential in sequential time culture.In a sequential time culture, people tend to understand the structure of time as being sequential, inflexible and to assign different importance to past, present and future. For them, It is very essential for event’s order happening. Because of that time is money, the importance of time is not lower I mean it is huge degree. Likewise, the degrees of planning, punctuality respecting to the system is high. Germany, The USA and UK are typical sequential-time cultures.      As people are watching the past, present and future during their life spanas interlocked time, they are used to working on a lot of projects at the same time, view plans and commitments as flexible. The reason is that the time that is changeable frame is thought by them. Typicality of synchronous-time culture is involving below countries: Japan, Mexico and Argentina ( Hampden-Turner &Trompenaars, 1997, page 119-138).                 “Majority of managers are discussing to be at the best way of improving cycle time, also getting goods to market at the time they are needed”. The most four special ways views:The increased speed operations and shortening of time to market are very essential. As  we said that “Time is money”, the problems of tighter system and deliveries in short time take a lot of tame to discuss and argue with each other.  It is also very important to speed up operations and cutting time to market. Doing jobs in short time is fastening as soon as possible you can “pass the path” to customers or colleagues in the relay race.Shorten times of period is the key of just in time synchronization of process and with users. The consuming time is saved more and more when the more process overlap and run simultaneously.Just-in-time synchronization of processes and with customers is the best solution to shorter period times. Acting things faster results in exhaustion and rushed jobs”.1) shows an idea for sequential orientation. However, contacts it to changeable managed processes; 2) is radical option for sequential meeting. 3)represents an idea for synchronic orientation. Unlike connects with it to high-speed sequential controlled processes; 4) is a fanatical opportunity for synchronic aspect (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 1997, pages from 137 to 138). 4. Recommendations.As we have seen above, there are a number of differences between these two cultures. Chinese Mr. Lee restaurant should adapt its foods and service system to the USA. They should watch how Mc Donald’s adapted and was able to overcome cultural differences in other countries. For example, Mc Donald’s sells beef burger in the USA, but in India they have vegetarian burger, in Singapore they do not sell pork products and in some south east Asian countries, such as China, Korea, Japan, they serve rice. This research gives recommendations what Mr. Lee restaurant should do so that they can tackle cultural barriers. First of all, the restaurant should hire employees of both nationalities. They should have diversity in the work force. By this, they would achieve mutual understanding between these two cultures. Besides, they should hire consultants to train both sides on culture. Then the employees would respect both cultures. Furthermore, it would be better. If they organized regular, ice breaking events. As a result they would acquire to involve more customers. Moreover, they should have cultural, fun events to expose both sides. For example, Chinese new year, Halloween etc. in these events they should involve spouses and children of employees. And they would have better cultural understanding as well as pleasure. In addition, the restaurant should have opportunities, facilities, and meals for all family members. As you know, family involvement  takes the collaboration to a higher personal level. If they follow these recommendations, their new restaurant in the USA will achieve a high reputation like Mc Donald’s.Conclusion.As one can see through this report, there are so many differences between Chinese and American cultures. If Chinese Mr. Lee restaurant desires to open its restaurant with Mc Donald’s they should learn this country’s culture and adapt their meals to Mc Donald’s meals. They should have facilities to motivate all Americans, from kids to the old. Their employees should be from both nationalities and should be aware of both cultures. As a result, I strongly feel the joint venture will acquire the aimed purpose.List of References.Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.Hofstede, G. (2009) Dimensionalizing Cultures: the Hofstede Model in context.Jodie R, Gorrill M.A (2007) Doing Business in the USA, US Social and Business Culture.Mengyu Li (2008) The unique values of Chinese traditional cultural time orientation: In comparison with Western Cultural Time Orientation. Intercultural Communication studies XVII: I 2008 p. 66.Sergiu Balan, Lucia Ovidia Vreja (2013). The Trompenaar’s Seven Dimension Cultural Model and Cultural orientations of Romanian students in management. Proceedings of the 7th International Management conference. New Management for the new economy, November 7th-8th. Bucharest.Schwartz, S.H (1999) A theory of cultural values and some implications for work, in Applied Psychology: an international Review, No. 48 (1), pp. 23-47Trompenaars, F and Hampden-Turner, C. (2004) Managing people across cultures, Capstone Publishing Ltd.Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner C (1997) p.6. Riding the waves of culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business, second edition, London and Santa Rosa. Trompenaars, F. and Woolliams, P. (2003), Business Across Cultures, Capstone Publishing Ltd.Wu H.D (2008) Modern Chinese Intellectual Property Culture Construction. Journal of Huazhong Normal University ( Humanities and Social science ) 48 (2).pp. 104-108.Xiantao Zhang (2010) Reflections on cultural differences between American and China on translation. Asian social science. Vol6, No 12, December.


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