UnitedStates Of America (USA) or United States(US) is a federal public and isworld’s 3rd or 4th largest country by total area. UnitedStates founded United Nations and is one of the most developed country withmost concentrated wealth in one country which is about 33% of total wealth inworld. US has established foreign relation with lot of countries and Pakistanwas not an exception. US developed relations with Pakistan on 20 October 1947which was just 2 months and 6 days after independence of Pakistan.
Thus US wasone of the first nations to develop relations with Pakistan. Since thenPakistan has allied with Pakistan on several occasions, most of them werebeneficial to US. For example, Pakistan allied with US against Soviet Union andPakistan was a key member which caused the later dismemberment of Soviet Union.
· StartingRelations Between Pakistan And US(1947-1958)After independence of Pakistan fromBritish Empire, Pakistan aimed to be non-aligned member. East Pakistan hadpro-communist force with considerable support while West Pakistan hadpro-Soviet Pakistan Socialist Party. However , West Pakistan’s politicallandscape was dominated by capitalist and pro-American Pakistan Muslim League.Prime Minister Ali Khan wanted to ally with both Soviet Union and America inhope that Pakistan could take advantages from both superpowers. However SovietUnion was supporting India at that time which raised negative comments fromPakistan. The population believed that Soviet Union was atheist as it wassupporting India while other organizations like army believed that Soviet Unionwould never support Pakistan as much it was supporting India.As Soviet Union was supportingPakistan rivals, it became clear that Pakistan could not benefit from bothSoviet Union and US.
Duringthis time in 1950, America invited Prime Minister Khan for an official visitwhich he accepted and went on 23 day official visit to US. It was revealed thatAmericas President Truman requested Pakistan to let CIA formulate a base inPakistan to keep an eye on Soviet Union which was turned down by Khan.From 1950 to 1953, many key figuresof Pakistan’s military and political paid visits to US of which the mostimportant was visit of General Ayub Khan. After visit of Khan, relationsbetween Pakistan and America grew strong and it was evident even duringassassination of Liaqat Ali Khan. Positive attitude was developed undergovernment of Khawaja Nazimuddin. · RelationsDuring Military Rule In PakistanWhen Ayub Khan came into power, the relations strengthenedbetween Pakistan and US. Ayub Khan’s view of US remained positive even beforehe came into power.
Even the population at that time was pro-American and heldpositive views regarding US. In 1960, Ayub Khan allowed United States to startits first spy missions to the Soviet Union from the Peshawar Air Base. In 1961,Ayub Khan visited US as head of state and was welcomed with state dinner andticker tape parade.As US aid was concentrated in West Pakistan, East Pakistanbecame angry and denounced the 1954 military pact with US. US aid to WestPakistan increased and in 1964, GDP growth was 9.3%.
in 1965, Ayub Khanlaunched Operation Gibraltar against India which turned into declaration ofwar. Pakistan lost 500 million dollars from US in war against India. It provedvery harmful to economy of Pakistan as economic growth was reduced to mere0.88%. However, Pakistan recovered rapidly with GDP growth of 2.32% in 1966 and9.79% in 1969. The war against India was useless as it had no clear victor norclear loser and it resulted in loss of lot of economic funds.
This caused AyubKhan to transfer his powers to General Yahya Khan in 1969.Even though US had no relations with General Yahya Khan, therelations were still preserved as Pakistan was considered as integral bulwark against communism.· RelationsDuring Rule Of Zulfiqar Ali BhuttoZulfiqar Ali Bhutto became president after 1970s election. Hewas democratic socialist who later became prime minister in 1974. The period ofhis rule is seen as quiet cold war as he administered socialist ideas.
Hisideas were like communist ideas but Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto never actuallysupported communism. Instead he concentrated on Movement of Non-AlignedCountries and he build friendly ties with Soviet block and Soviet Union.Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto also tried to maintain relations with US but US refused tocooperate. He strongly supported left-wing politics which was strongly opposedby US from the beginning. The president of US at that time , President Nixon,was close friend of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and hence had strong relations with himbut when Jimmy Carter became president of US, the relations between Pakistanand US became weak.
This was because Jimmy Carter was an anti-socialist. Therelation was already upset with left wing theories of Bhutto. US startedfearing the loss of Pakistan which was an ally in Cold War.
On the other hand,Bhutto was sympathetic towards Soviet Union and allowed Soviet Union to accessPakistan’s warm water ports. This was extremely beneficial to Soviet Union aswarm water ports was lacked by both Soviet Union and US. The relations betweenCater and Bhutto grew worse as Carter opposed the policy and ambitions ofBhutto and pressurized Bhutto. To return this favor, Bhutto became aggressiveand serious over the nuclear issues. This was weak point of US and it put US ondefensive positions at UN as Carter had no counter against Bhutto.Bhutto focused on nuclear weapon research which was stronglyopposed by US. US blackmailed Bhutto on several occasions but Bhutto did notfalter and continued on weapon developing.
Carter had placed an embargo onPakistan but Bhutto succeeded to bought sensitive equipment, common metalmaterials and electronic components which were marked as common items. Throughthis, Bhutto was able to hide his true intentions and continued on nuclearweapon project. This was failure for Carter as his embargo was useless. USopposed the nuclear bomb project as it predicted that it will result indestructive war against India.
Hence was hanged in 1979 after he was declared corrupted oneby pro-United States Muslims nations and United States.· RelationsDuring Rule Of Zia ul HaqDue to event of Grand Mosque Seizure, a group of PakistaniStudents burned the American embassy in Islamabad to ground resulting in deathof two Americans in 1979.The relations between Pakistan and US improved a lot afterthe death of Bhutto. The Soviet Army crossed borders on December 24, 1979 intoAfghanistan.
To counter the invasion of Soviet Union of Afghanistan, amulti-billion Operation Cyclone was started . During the military rule GeneralZia-ul-Haq , the relations and ties grew to maximum point as US gave billiondollars worth of aid to Pakistan to fight against Soviet Union. It was firsttime that Pakistan and US had strong common interest which was to fight SovietUnion after its invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. It also resulted in 3.2billion dollar military and economic assistance program between Pakistan and USto help Pakistan deal with increased security threat in region and fulfill itseconomic development needs. It resulted in largest covert operation in historyin which Pakistan fought Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.
In 1980s, US congress froze the $658 million deal of Pakistanrequesting F-16 fighters and kept both the money and the planes which led angeramong Pakistanis who claimed it as theft. The response of Carter was 325million dollars aid in three years but it was rejected by Zia. Carter’s next try was to give less than 50million dollars a year to go to Mujahideen. But like the previous and all othertries, it was rebuffed by Zia. The reason behind Zia’s rejections were that heknew Cater was soon going to be replaced by Reagan and he may get a more beneficialdeal from Reagan. He was right and Ronald Reagan became president afterdefeating Carter in 1980. Reagan introduced many new policies and with helpfrom other key members, he increased the funding of Operation Cyclone.
Thisresulted in increased funding to Pakistan which finally reached one billion dollars.This was because US were facing Soviet Union which was the only rivalsuperpower of US and it was aiming to create Communist block. The US aided Ziain fighting against Soviets in Pakistan. Reagan supported Pakistan’s militaryregime and during this period, Pakistan was regularly visited by American officials.This was period of strong and close ties between Pakistan and US.