Unit 17: ProjectManagement for Construction and the Built Environment Luke Livesley Contents Introduction The purpose of this report is todescribe the processes of project management in the construction industry.
Forthe purpose of recruitment the report will look to advise Wakefield College onwhat it takes to be a good project manager, looking at the roles andresponsibilities involved and the key characteristics needed. It aims to advisethe college of the benefits of using internal or external consultants, and theadvantages and disadvantages of each. The report will give advice to themanagement of Wakefield College in relation to the refurbishment of the Deedsbuilding in Wakefield which is part of the college’s ambition to expand itsexisting campuses.
Task 1.1 (LO1: 1.1; 1.
2; M) What is project managementThe definition of projectmanagement can most accurately be described as the organising of resources,including people, to carry out tasks within certain timescales. Projectmanagement aims to do this as efficiently and effectively as possible. It isessentially the application of certain processes, knowledge, methods and importantlyexperience to ultimately progress to achieving a defined end goal or objective.It should be noted that a project, is defined as having a definitive start andending, and this ending can take days, weeks, months or years before it is iscomplete. History of Project ManagementIt has been noted that projectmanagement can be dated back as far as 3000 years ago, when the Egyptians builtthe iconic pyramids we can see still standing today. Generation after generation havebeen managing projects for hundreds of years, with different ideas to improveproject management emerging all the time. According to (mindtools.com), themost significant ideas began to prevail during the 20th century andmuch of our understanding of management practises today come from academics andtheorists from this period.
· Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915) – Fredrick Taylor isbest known as the “Father of Scientific Management”. The scientific managementtheory (also know as Taylorism) is based around the idea that making peoplework as hard as possible to get a job done was inefficient and work could bebetter optimized by looking at how the job was done instead to improveproductivity. The fourprinciples of scientific management theory are: 1. Replacethe “rule of thumb” mentality to work and use scientific method instead.2. Train,and assign workers to the jobs that best suit their skillset.3. Monitorperformance4.
Allocatework between managers and workers so that the workers can get on with theirjob, leaving managers to get on with planning and training.Ultimately, Taylor’s theory ofmanagement helped shape today’s relationship between the worker and themanager, and this cooperation resulted in the teamwork enjoyed today. However,it should be noted that the scientific management theory promoted the conceptthat there is “one right way” to do a job, and this can take away a worker’ssense of responsibility to make their own decisions which is different tomodern methods such as continuous improvement techniques which promotes decisionsto be made by all levels throughout anorganisation. · HenryGantt (1861-1919)http://www.conceptdraw.com/How-To-Guide/picture/Construction-project-chart-examples.
pngHenry Gantt was heavily involved inimproving project management, starting work as an engineer and then managementconsultant he eventually developed the Gantt chart. This was used to give avisual aid to show activities and tasks against time within a project. Similarto how a bar chart looks, the left side of the Gantt chart represents thetask/activity, with the top representing the timescale and date providing aneasy to understand guide. However, when the Gantt chart wasfirst developed, it was drawn by hand and this was an issue as problems couldoccur during a project which were hard to change in the chart itself. This isnot such an issue with todays technology though, as new charts can be easilyprinted and changed on computers.
A Gantt chart could have been used for theconstruction of the ASIC building, giving the project manager and his team theability to see when tasks such as laying the foundations were to be carriedout, right through to painting the interior.· Lathamreport (1994) – “Constructing the Team” https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/126916404/original/1f5aedffb2/1511530585?v=1 The Latham report, written by Sir MichaelLatham in 1994 did much to change the way construction works and has influencedproject management in the present day. It was commissioned by the UK Governmentand it is said to be the first report of its kind to gain widespread industryrecognition.
The report was commissioned to identify systemic failings in theUK construction industry. Latham made 53 recommendations in total to changeindustry practices and increase efficiency, and a key concept within the reportwas that through better teamwork and communication the industry could delightits customers more. The report also aimed to prevent unnecessary delays inconstruction by emphasising the need for better communication betweencontractors and the rest of the team. Latham argued that the traditionalmethods being used were leading to problems which were a result of a lack ofco-ordination and communication between the design team and the constructionteam. This report would have influenced the project manager on the ASICdevelopment for these reasons. · Eganreport – “Rethinking Construction” (1998) Written by Sir John Egan in 1998,this report built on the previous Latham report and its main outcome did muchto further drive efficiency and quality improvements for the constructionindustry.
The report identified five keyareas for change:1. Committedleadership2. Focuson the customer3. Integratedprocesses and teams4. Qualitydriven agenda5. Commitmentto peopleOverall, the Egan report said thatit was very possible like other sectors had already done, to improve theconstruction industry.
It emphasised the need to focus more on thecustomer/client’s needs and the user of the buildings in order to improve housebuilding as a whole.Review of current methods of project managementAs discussed, history has shapedthe way project management is today and current methods have improved over thelast 30 years and have also benefited from advances in technology. Examples ofmethods include; BIM (business information modelling), RIBA Plan of Works andCritical Path Methods (CPM).
· Critical Path Methods – widely used inconstruction for project management, CPM is a great method for schedulingprojects on time. A CPM shows a graphical view much like a Gantt chart ofimportant activities for a project such as work specified in contractdocuments, all work to be carried out by subcontractors including the suppliersof materials and all the others teams involved in the construction process. ACPM graph is basically used to calculate how much time and resources are neededto complete a project, and also shows activities requiring attention.
· RIBA Plan of Works – the RIBA Plan of Works is away of organising the different processes in construction from briefing,designing, sonstruction and operating buildings. These are organised into 8different stages which include details of different tasks at 8 different stagesof the building from design right through to handover. · BIM (Business Information Modelling) – BIM hasbeen around in various formats since the late 1980’s and is becomingincreasingly popular in project management. In fact, it is expected to play animportant part in the UK governemnt’s key construction strategy targets ofreducing costs and maintanence, reducing time from inception to completion,reducing greenhouse gas emissions in construction and reducing the importingand exporting of materials by 2025.
BIM is essentially 3D design. Although 3Ddesign has been used in software such as CAD for a long time, BIM differs inthat it creates a virtual mock of an entire project, including the design andthe tasks involved to complete the project. BIM could have been used on theASIC building and a particular benefit of doing this would be that should anyproblems happen during the project, BIM enables these changes to be made to the3D model with ease which saves a lot of time and complications. Role of the project managerA Project Manager is a key personin the team and their role in construction is to take overall responsibility ata high level on behalf of the client for the given project. Any project,whether it be a sky scraper or a small house needs someone to take the role ofmaking sure the project is completed on time and to budget.
However, someclients decide to take on the roles themselves, but this can lead to problems.Essentially a project manager will take the role of the success of a projectbut he will also be responsible if it fails too. Specific roles of the PM for theASIC development would include: · Prepare cost estimates, budgets and plan workingtimetables· Use construction methods such as BIM asexplained previously· The PM would be there to explain any contractsand technical information to clients and workers · Continually update the client such as wakefieldcollege on progress and financial updates· They also have strong links with the design teamsuch as the architect, and also engineers· Deal with any problems that can arise during aproject and deal with them accordingly · Involved in procurement – finding andinstructing appropriate trade staff and other professionals for the project· Make sure all practises are carried out safelyand to any building regulations One of a project managers main roleis to supervise a wide variety of projects, including buildings such asresidential, commercial, industrial structures, roads and bridges To maximize efficiency andproductivity, construction managers often use various cost-estimating andplanning software to effectively budget the time and money required to completespecific projects.
Many managers also use software to determine the best way toget materials to the building site. Most managers plan a project strategy andmust identify and solve unexpected issues and delays as and when they arise.Construction managers address budget matters and are involved in looking atwhether the project is feasible. They are also involved in looking at where themoney will come from for the project, and if the project can make a return in termsof profit. For the ASIC building, funding would be coming from centralgovernment and although this is a school, it will still likely make profitsfrom the tuition fees – the project manager would look at these thingsbeforehand.
Advantages and disadvantages or project managementThe advantages of having a projectmanager is that they are great for the larger project such as the HS2 rail forexample as they can organise and lead if they are experienced. They alsoprovide a great relationship between the client and the construction team,leading to better communication. However, some issues with using projectmanagers is that they are very costly, with some earning over £50,000 a year.This can limit their services to larger projects and isn’t suitable for smalljobs.
Also, many project managers are inexperienced, as they haven’t worked ina trade role for example prior to obtaining relevant qualifications. Althoughmost project managers lead to better communication, it could be argued thatinexperience can cause divisions on site especially if they have bad personalskills. Task 1.2 (LO2: 2.1; 2.2; MD)Evaluate the key characteristics of a project managerWakefield college is looking torecruit a project manager to oversee the development of the Deeds building.This is a refurbishment job, and so experience in this sector will be paramountto the success for the college. This report will aim to assist the college bywriting a job advert for the position to give the college a good idea of whatis needed.
Job advertWakefield college is lookingappoint an experienced project manager for the development and refurbishment ofit Deeds college campus in Wakefield. As this is a refurbishment project,a minimum of 10 years experience is desired in this field of work.List of requirements for this role:· Develop and monitor strategies to deliver aquality build in accordance with the requirements of the project.· Develop and monitor project strategies in orderto achieve the company’s sustainability objectives.· Maintain the highest standards of health, safetyand environmental management.· Manage the client expectations and adopt aprofessional and considerate approach to maintain good working relations.· Adopt the principles of the ConsiderateConstructor’s Scheme and manage community relations.
· Develop and implement project strategy anddelivery programme. Ensure effective Communication and implementation todeliver the project on time. Ensure regular monitoring and reporting onprogress and instigate corrective actions as required.· Maintain continuous professional development ofyourself and your team to ensure appropriate technical awareness.· Ensure consistent implementation of standardprocedures.
· Manage project handover and ensure defect /snagfree completion.· Ensure robust strategy for the closure ofdefects during defects period and obtain certificate of Making Good Defectswithin targets set.· Implement best practice and drive continuousimprovement within the team. Qualifications needed for this roleEssential· Bsc degree in construction project management· HND project management· PRINCE2: foundation or equivalent Desirable Minimum 5 years experience in projectmanagement An internal consultant was used forthe ASIC development by the college.
Like an external consultant, internalconsultants are professionals that are hired to solve any organisationalproblems and implement the solutions to improve the efficiency of anorganisation. The difference between external and internal consultants lies inthe relationship with the client organisation; internal consultants areemployed directly by the organisation and are on their payroll whereas externalconsultants are separate to it altogether. One of the main reasons for usinginternal consulting is that organisations want to avoid advisory firms thatcharge large amounts of money. Therefore, some organisations decide it ischeaper for them to build up their own internal consulting team.
The use of aninternal consultant is not only done with the aim of saving money however.There are other reasons why organisations build up internal teams, or givepreference to internal over external consultants. Advantages of internal consultantsInternal advisors are generallyaround 4 to 6 times cheaper than external advisors, although this is not alwaysthe case. As internal consultants work for the company already, they have theadded benefit of having first-hand knowledge of the company they advise.
Havingthis good knowledge of their company make internal consultants very valuableand as they already have good working relationships with existing workers, thisonly serves to improve communication across the board.