A. In my essay will explain how an understanding of human growth and development can assist the counsellor in responding to the needs of the client. I have chosen three theories in three different models. My first model is psychodynamic and I will look at Sigmund frauds theory of development. The second model is humanistic and I will be covering Rogers and Maslow. My last model I will cover in this essay is social Erikson’s lifespan development theory. My essay will look at the theories and the application of each theory and I shall explain how an understanding of human growth and development can assist the counsellor in responding to the needs of the client.
II. Psychodynamics Sigmund Fraud psychosexual stages
A. In any persons period of life they will go through 5 stages (Gerald Corey).these stages are called the psychosexual stages (theory and practice of counselling and psychotherapy). Before going over the psychosexual stages, the id and the ego and super ego needs to be addressed as it is one of the biggest components in the personality theory (about.com). All humans are born with an id (about.com) it is the unconscious part of humans which is spoilt and always wants (simpl.com).the ego later develops to rationalise the id and is in contact with the external world (simple.com), later the super ego is formed in the oredpuss stage. it is made up of moral codes , values that have been passed down .the super ego manly controls the id acting from impulses (sex,aggression) (allpsych.com) and convinces the ego realistic rather than moral.
Each stage is different, some are longer and some shorter, but it is imperative that each stage is completed and each stage is as equally as important as the other. It is important to complete each stage in order to become healthy adults(Gerald Corey) .the five stages are as follows: oral, this is the first year of life (Gerald Corey) lips are sceneries, breast is needed and nurturing is needed. If a child does not receive this personality problems may occur in later life also feelings of greediness (Gerald Corey). 1-3 is the anal stage where by children learn their independence and there anatomy, parents cannot be to stricked about potty training nor can parents over praise their children for toilet training (Gerald Corey).
If tot lit training is not handled sufficiently then later in life there can be personality disorders, eg, anal-aggressive, cruelty. Or anal retentive, stubbiness’. An age 3-6 is the phallic stage. Children feel threatened by the Other parent. Oedipus complex, mother is a love object and in girls it is the Electra complex, girls strive for fathers love (Gerald Corey). At this stage unconscious urges, desires for the parent is formed (Gerald Corey), boys wish to do away with their father, who they see as a threat, the boy has sexual urges for mother (Gerald Corey). The boy represses these feelings out of fear of father’s reactions. This is called, castration anxiety (fear of genital, the penis being cut off) (Gerald Corey) by father.
These urges are soon replaced with appropriate forms of attachment. At this point the young boy can identify with father thus embracing Meany of father’s characteristics (Gerald Corey). With the Electra complex it’s about the clitoris. A girl looks at her mother as love objects (Gerald Cory). This stage turns the love object from mother to father, negative feelings for mother develop when the young girl recognizes mother has no penis (penis envy) (Gerald Cory). At this stage girls are trying to get fathers affection and compete with mother (Gerald Corey), but soon realize it is impossible to replace mother and just like the ordupipus complex, begin to identify with the same sex parent and develop appropriate forms of attachment.
The next stage is latency 6-12. This stage is about forming relationships in the form of socialization. The sexual drive is redirected to school activities, sport and social friendships with the same sex the ego and super ego is fixed in to development at this stage. 12-18 is the genital stage. Young adults develop interests in the opposite sex, like previously in the phallic stage. the body is changing in terms of the growing of pubic hair growing, periods, in young males semen being produced .because of social restrictions adolescents shift their sexual energies to other forms of interaction such as sport, friendships and career mapping(Gerald Corey). If this stage is not managed with positivity and acceptance then personality disorders can take place. And the last stage is 18-35 the genital continued.
The genital sage is the longest stage and continues to 60 +.becoming and being an adult .freedom to do as you please, love who you want, work where you want no parental restriction, a person has now become an adult (Gerald Corey). Responsibilities are taken, intimate relationships are formed and the capacity to want to understand others is formed (Gerald coyer).if the stages were inadequate, not positive then there can be problems, fraud calls these problems fixations. As noted earlier there are 5 stages, oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Successful completion of stages determines how the next stage is managed.
An example would be a caregiver did not meet the needs of a child in the oral stage, in terms of the giving of food (breastfeeding). The child may later develop trust issues, personality disorders due to the wanting feeling, the pleasure principle of the id has an impact because the developmentrey task was not mastered or sufficient for this stage. In terms of how knowing this theory can assist the counsellor it is simple. By looking at the blue print of this theory you can see at what stage the client is fixated on and work within the framework.
III. Humanistic, Rogers and Maslow
Conditions of worth are based on the assumption that humans are capable of a sense of (self) (ryson). Humans are trustworthy and do pose the ability to understand self and are capable of self direction and growth (Gerald Cory, 2001) if in the right growth setting. There are spersiffic growth setting but are used collectively ,the growth settings are as follows ,congruence, unconditional positive regard and accurate empathy (Gerald corey,20011) there is also the need of reflection from therapist to client, this prompt growth because it is a clarification of thoughts and feeling and behaviour.
Reflection is needed only then will a client feel understood and listened to (humanistic theories) an example of this would be a client come in and makes this statement when in therapy:”things are always going wrong for me”. the therapist reflection:”so things haven’t been going as you would like for some time”? Rogers theory is not complex, it is broad in the sense of speech and reflectiveness actualization of each element of life can take a client and therapist any and everywhere in exploration. therapy for a client can varey from brief therapy 1day or 12seshions where by a therapist meets up with a client once a week , or more sessions can be implemented if therapy is not ready to end . by implementing this theory into counselling, congruence, empathy and respect it prompts growth and a clients human growth and development can take place self actualization occurs creating a full functioning person (Carl Rogers) posing qualities of openness to express, existential living , orgnismic trusting , experiential freedom and creativity.
Maslow’s theory is that there is a hierarchy. For humans they prioritise , and these prioritise in to different levels of needs(psychology 1988)starting with the basic at the bottom being, food water, oxygen , so humans need to eat , have water to drink and clean air to breath .only once those basic needs are meet will a human be willing and able to progress up to the next level(psychology,1988)there are five stages in this Archie, physiological as stated previously food, water, oxygen, safety ranging from children wanting stability and attachment in their surroundings, to job, home and money . the next level up which would be level 3 is belongingness some people may chose parenting, the giving of love and nurturing, finding a partner or finding groups to associate with, to create at a sense of belongingness .esteem can take the form of trophies, degrees and certificates any form of approval or positive admiration and lastly, self actualization (nursing&allied health) .at each level if needs are not meet there can be devastating outcomes.
These out comes include withdrawal from society if raised in isolation, mistrust issues and this would come under safety on the hierarchy (www.learning). Maslow’s theory was based on the assumption tat people are goal driven and that motives guide human behaviour. Humans start off with a cretin level of needs and these needs progress as needs are meet. Maslow also talks about Peak experiences, at one with the universe feeling, free, charged. Human growth depends on, biological, cognitive, emotional and social issues. By knowing this theory it can assist the counsellor in terms of, knowing where your client is at and on which level they well need help on e.g., they may be on the safety level. There could be domestic violence involved and they need shelter, the therapist could then contact the relent societies or a letter to a homeless unit is just one example.
IV. Social, Erickson
There are eight stages in a life span, age 0 -60+(Gerald Corey).in these eight stages we as humans have conflicts (Erickson) between our own person and the social world. Humans grow psychosocially. Erickson states that in a person’s lifespan there are spersicfic points when we will have conflicts’ with our social world and we either adaptive or maladaptive (Erickson).at each stage there is a need for personal change, this need is always present and only by changing something personally will growth come from this stage and a person can move on to the next stage or regress (Erickson). Erickson stresses that the ego strives for knowledge and competence throughout life the ego wants and needs to grow intellectually (Erikson).
The ego develops from a young age of and evolves throughout a lifetime. In Erikson’s pschosocial stages there are 8 stages as stated above .the first is trust versus mistrust age 0-18 months babies learning to trust if love and careingness is present trust is developed, if absent mistrust has been implemented . Autonomy versus shame and doubt. Infants get a chance to discover anatomy, learn dependence and a capability to feel free to make mistakes and learn from them. (Erikson) if infants are not empowered with independency then in later life there may be personality struggles may occur. 3-6 initiative versus guiltbeing allowed making dish ions/choice deciding on activities they like and enjoy, marking a positive view on life and consistencies s in their projects is a good feeling.
If a child is not allowed to make dish ions or looked down on for activates, disshions or chose’s of there intress then guilt can end up being a permanent fixture. Later may become withdrawn an unable to make dish ions for self (Gerald Corey) .6-12industry versus inferiority knowledge of the world, learning skills and learning to complete tasks in school in order to succeed , learning about gender and there identify . if not achieve then inadequacy feeling will kick in.12-18 the most challgeing conflict come in adolescents forming “personality”(Gerald cory,page,80)questions on who they are, were and how they will achieve there desired wishes. This stages is also about creating a catalogue of rules/values and ethics to achieve their identity.
Failure to achieve this can result in role confusion (Gerald Corey) .18-35 young adult: intimacy versus isolation .it’s all about forming relationships and a confidence in self, giving of self unselfishly and being committable and confident in self and identity. Failed to achieve can result in isolation and alienation (Gerald Cory). Middle adulthood, generativity versus stagnation 35-60 productivity in a broad sense, work love socially, hobbies. If not productive accomplishments will conflick or reality and it can be very painful to realise you have not achieved desires from previous stages.
Later life, integrity versus despair 60+ego integrity (Erikson) reflecting on life, looking at life with acseptence being satisfied with life and how it has turned hear and now. Accepting mistakes and acknowledging achivments, no regrets and no doubts. If ego integrity is not achieved, feelings of resentment, guilt and inadicuqsey can occur. As a counsellor knowing this theory will help immensely with helping assist the client because you know what stage you client is at and what stage or conflicted they are fighting at that present moment in their life.
Conclusion all the theories where very interesting ,the one thing they all have in common is human behaviour , growth as a person and development in terms of a child growing into an adult. Erickson, Rogers and Maslow theory has allot to do with the world, how people are perceived and how the world, people in it and our environment deals with people and how people relate back. But Sigmund theory was based on sex, and sexual urges.
It seems as if these drives, the wanting from the id that has to be repressed. Rogers theory is an obvious liked one it may be the simplest but I think it is very affective, every one searches for acceptance, it equals compatibility an easy from anxiousness a happy and producterble human being .Maslow’s theory is used allot in the workplace, motivation and productivity ,is what Maslow focused on and our ability to reach actualisation’s don’t know how possible it would be foe people in poorer countries to actually achieve self actualization if the basic needs are not meet. Does that then mean that mentally people who live in deprived areas are less likely to reach self actualization? Moving on to Erikson’s conflicts.
We as humans can relate to this as every day there is some sort of obstacle in our path. And as we live in the social world, changing every minute this theory relates to the world. All three theories are saying that humans need to be nurtured, have independency and freedom to make chose’s for themselves so knowledge is of the up most important. I think knowing each theory gives the counsellor a guide line to work in and looking at you client symptoms a counsellor is able to identify exactly what level or stage a client is no, thus being able to provide a suitable care plan for the client.