Tubes filled up with hot water

I will use test tubes filled up with hot water as penguins.

Also, I will be using a measuring cylinder to measure the water. I will use the same amount of water in each test tube (10 ml) and take the temperature at regular intervals. All water will start at the same temperature. We will continue the experiment for 15 minutes. I will make 2 different experiments giving out 4 different results:* Test tube on its own* The middle tube* The tube in the 2nd layer* The tube in the 3rd layerPREDICTIONI predict that a huddled group will lose less heat than an isolated penguin. This is because the exposed surface area of a group of animals is less for each penguin than an isolated one. Also, I could say that the heat will be kept by radiation: the penguin in the middle radiates heat to those surrounding it, and in this way, they can keep a constant temperature (remember that the heat passes easily if one surface is colder than another).

The test tube on its own will cool down faster than the others.APPARATUS* Kettle* Stop clock* Measuring cylinder.* 20 Test tubes* 2 rubber bands* 3 ThermometersMETHODEXPERIMENT 1* Collect the equipment* Assemble huddle* Heat the water (750c)* Measure 10 ml in the cylinder* Pour 10ml of water in all of the tubes.* Start the clock* Take the temperature of one tube of each layer each minute for 15 minutes.

* Record results.EXPERIMENT 2* Heat the water (750C)* Measure 10 ml in the cylinder* Pour 10ml of water in the test tube* Start the clock* Take the temperature each for 15 minutes every minute* Record results.MAKING A FAIR TESTIn order to make a fair test I will keep the same temperature in both experiments and I will check that the thermometers are in perfect condition.

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CONCLUSIONThe results show that an isolated penguin will lose heat faster than a penguin in the middle of a huddle. As I predicted, a huddled penguin will conserve more heat than an isolated penguin. The exposed surface area of a huddled animal is less than an isolated one, so it cools down more slowly.In the first experiment, the penguin on the middle and those in the 2ndlayer keep their temperature longer than those on the outer layer because the test tube on the middle radiates heat and the layer surrounding it receives the heat without losing it. Also, the surface exposed by the test tubes in the 2nd layer is the same than the one in the middle and the 3rd layer of test tubes has part of its surface exposed so it tends to cool down faster than the inner layers.EVALUATIONI can say that the results show a pattern and they support my prediction.But I have to say that my results are not 100% exact because when I measured the water from the kettle to the cylinder and from the measuring cylinder to the test tube, the water tends to cool down.

My experiment would be more precise if I have not pass the water around so many receptacles.

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