The measurements will use a titration to find what volume of hydrochloric acid an antacid tablet will neutralise.Theory:Our stomachs produce gastric acid to aid in digestion. This acid is mainly composed of hydrochloric acid that is secreted by cells of the stomach lining called parietal cells. Excessive secretion of this acid is common and can lead to many stomach problems such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and peptic acid disease. These disorders are treated by antacids, which reduce the amount of acid in the stomach by various means.Most antacids contain weak bases and they neutralize the stomach acids by reacting with them chemically. These antacids are best taken for occasional stomach problems and they act very rapidly to provide relief. Some of the most common bases that are used as antacids are:* Mg (OH) 2, magnesium hydroxide* Al (OH) 3, aluminium hydroxide* NaHCO3, sodium bicarbonate* CaCO3, calcium carbonateThese chemicals are used because they are weak bases – strong bases would lead to the risk of damaging the stomach if too much was taken. Bases neutralize acids by reacting with them to produce a salt and water. This chemical reaction of a weak base with stomach acid can be written in the general form:Weak base + hydrochloric acid –> salt + waterA specific example of this chemical reaction is:Mg (OH) 2 + 2 HCl –> MgCl2 + 2 H2OThere are other forms of antacid that work by less direct means. There are two types of pharmaceutical drugs that act indirectly to reduce the amount of stomach acid. Both of these types drugs act to suppress the formation of stomach acids. Essentially, they turn off the biochemical machinery that produces the stomach acid. These drugs are slower acting than the bases mentioned above, but they provide relief for a much longer time. People with chronic stomach problems usually take them.PredictionTablet = SuperdrugActive Ingredient = 0.5g CaCO3Relative formula mass (RFM) = 100Moles of active ingredient = mass / RFM = 0.5 / 100 = 0.005 molesEquation = CaCO3 + 2HCl >> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2OMoles of HCl that should be neutralised = 2 x moles of CaCo3 = 2 x 0.005 = 0.01Concentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.01/1 = 0.01dm3 = 10cm3Tablet = RennieActive Ingredient = 0.68g CaCO3, & 0.08g MgCO3Relative formula mass (RFM) = 100, & 84Moles of CaCO3 = mass/RFM = 0.68/100 = 0.0068 molesMoles of MgCO3 = mass/RFM = 0.08/84 = 0.0009523809524 moles (13dp)Equation for CaCO3 = CaCO3 + 2HCl >> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2OMoles of HCl that should be neutralised = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x0.0068 = 0.0136 molesConcentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.0136/1 =0.0136 dm3 = 13.6 cm3Equation for MgCO3 = MgCO3 + 2HCl >> MgCl2 + CO2 + H2OMoles of HCl that should be neutralised = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x0.0009523809524 = 0.001904761905 moles (12dp)Concentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.001904761905/1 =0.001904761905 dm3 = 1.904761905 cm3Total predicted volume of HCl needed = 1.904761905 + 13.6 = 15.5047619 cm3 (8dp)Tablet = BisodolActive Ingredient = 0.522g CaCO3, & 0.068g MgCO3, & 0.064g NaHCO3Relative formula mass (RFM) = 100, & 84, & 84Moles of CaCO3 = mass/RFM = 0.522/100 = 0.00522 molesMoles of MgCO3 = mass/RFM = 0.068/84 = 0.000809538095… moles (13dp)Moles of NaHCO3 = mass/RFM = 0.064/84 = 0.0007619047619 moles (12dp)Equation for CaCO3 = CaCO3 + 2HCl >> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2OMoles of HCl that should be neutralised = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x 0.00522 = 0.01044 molesConcentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.01044/1 =0.01044dm3 = 10.44cm3Equation for MgCO3 = MgCO3 + 2HCl >> MgCl2 + CO2 + H2OMoles of HCl that should be neutralised = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x 0.000809538095 = 0.001523809524 moles (12dp)Concentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.001523809524/1 =0.001619047619dm3 = 1.619047619cm3 (9dp)Equation for NaHCO3 = NaHCO3 + 2HCl >> NaCl2 + CO2 + H2O + HMoles of HCl that should be neutralised = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x 0.0007619047619 = 0.00152380954 moles (11dp)Concentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.00152380954/1 =0.00152380954dm3 = 1.52380954cm3 (8dp)Total predicted volume of HCl needed = 1.52380954 + 1.619047619 + 10.44 = 13.5885716 cm3Tablet = Boots OriginalActive Ingredient = 0.2g CaCO3, & 0.06g MgCO3, & 0.06g NaHCO3Relative formula mass = 100, & 84, & 84Moles of CaCO3 = mass/RFM = 0.2/100 = 0.002 molesMoles of MgCO3 = mass/RFM = 0.06/84 = 0.0007142857143 molesMoles of NaHCO3 = mass/RFM = 0.06/84 = 0.0007142857143 molesEquation for CaCo3 = CaCO3 + 2HCl >> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2OMoles of HCl that should be neutralized = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x 0.002 = 0.004 molesConcentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.004/1 = 0.004dm3 = 4cm3Equation for MgCo3 = MgCO3 + 2HCl >> MgCl2 + CO2 + H2OMoles of HCl that should be neutralized = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x 0.0007142857143 = 0.001428571429 molesConcentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.001428571429/1 = 0.001428571429dm3 = 1.428571429cm3Equation for MgCo3 = NaHCO3 + 2HCl >> NaCl2 + CO2 + H2O + HMoles of HCl that should be neutralized = 2 x moles of active ingredient = 2 x 0.0007142857143 = 0.001428571429 molesConcentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.001428571429/1 = 0.001428571429dm3 = 1.428571429cm3Total predicted volume of HCl needed = 4 + 1.428571429 + 1.428571429 = 6.857142857cm3Tablet = SettlersActive Ingredient = 0.5g CaCO3Relative formula mass (RFM) = 100Moles of active ingredient = mass / RFM = 0.5 / 100 = 0.005 molesEquation = CaCO3 + 2HCl >> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2OMoles of HCl that should be neutralised = 2 x moles of CaCo3 = 2 x 0.005 = 0.01Concentration of HCl to be used = 1M (1mole per dm3)Predicted volume of HCl needed = moles/concentration = 0.01/1 = 0.01dm3 = 10cm3Active IngredientsSuper drug- 500mg CaCO3Rennie- 680mg CaCO3, 80mg MgCO3Bisdol-522mg CaCO3, 68mg MgCO3, 64mg NaHCO3Boots Original-200mg CaCO3, 60mg MgCO3, 60NaHCO3Settlers- 500mg CaCO3Initial PlanThe initial plan is to find out which indicator shows the best colour change when the reaction occurs and what concentration of hydrochloric acid gives the best results. I will crush the antacid tablet and add water to it. I will then add Indicators to find out which is the best one that shows the colour change. I will then add hydrochloric acid bit by bit and then shake the conical flask to speed up the process. So you can find out the exact amount of acid that was neutralized.Safety* Wear goggles when handling corrosive solutions etc.* Wear gloves* Take of blazers & wear aprons* Tuck in ties* Report any breakages or spillsFair testTo make it a fair test I will:* Use the same amount of water each time.* Use the same amount of bromophenol blue each time. By using too much you increase the volume even by the slight mm therefore decreasing its accuracy.* Use the same volumes of acid each time from the burette.* Either uses a whole tablet or a crushed tabled. By using crushed you allow more surface area therefore more reactions.* It is essential that none of the powder be spilt or wasted as this may have major effects on the amount of hydrochloric acid to be neutralised.PreliminaryTo find if initial plan works and which indicator shows best color change and what concentration of hydrochloric acid gives best results.12AverageBuirette Start0.20.10.15Buirette Finish101110.5Titration volume of acid used9.810.910.35The results above are Hydrochloric acid with a concentration of 0.5 Mole. Using 25cm3 of water and the color indicator bromophenol blue.12AverageBuirette Start00.10.05Buirette Finish14159.5Titration volume of acid used1414.914.45The results above are Hydrochloric acid with the concentration of 1 Mole. Using 25cm3 of water and the colour indicator bromophenol blue.After conducting my preliminary experiments I have decided to continue using strength one mole hydrochloric acid and not strength 0.5. I have also decided that the amount of water used to dissolve the powder into is irrelevant as it makes no difference to the actual outcome but I will use 25cm3 of water. This would reflect the amount of water a person would intake with an indigestion tablet. Two test of each type of antacid is sufficient.ConclusionI notice from the results that with a 1 mole concentrated Hydrochloric acid the antacid tablet can neutralize more acid than the 0.5 mole concentrated Hydrochloric acid. I also acknowledged that the initial plan had worked and the method was correct. I also came to the conclusion that the Bromophenol Blue indicator is the best to use because it is a colour that is more distinct than the others when in this experiment.EquipmentClampClamp standFunnelDistilled water 25ml (for each test)Measuring Cylinder2 Conical flasksBuiretteBromophenol blue 10drops (for each test)MortarAdapted planFirstly set up the equipment as shown in the diagram.* Pour the hydrochloric acid into the buirette using the funnel. Up to 0dm�. If the acid has gone over the top either pour the excess acid into another flask or use the measurement in the table. A buirette shall be set up with a stand and lowered below eye height. This is important so that when adding acid none will spill causing possible eye damage.* Crush the antacid tablet in a basin (to allow more surface area in the experiment).* Put the crushed tablet into a flask.* Pout 25mls of distilled water using a cylinder into the flask including the crushed antacid tablet.* Add 10 drops of bromophenol blue to the solution.* Stir and place under the buirette. The conical flask shall be placed upon a white tile so and slight changes in indicator colour can be seen.* Release the buirette clog and pour in 2dm� of hydrochloric acid.* Stir the solution until it reaches its original coulor.* Keep performing this until u reach to 10dm�* Then only release 1dm� at a time and stir.* When the indicator returns to its alkaline colour more acid should gradually be added, until alkalinity is not regained.* The solution is then neutralized.ResultsRennie tablet12AverageBuirette Start000Buirette Finish161515.5Titration volume of acid used161515.5Boots original tablet12AverageBuirette Start0.10Buirette Finish117Titration volume of acid used10.91Indigestion relief tablet12AverageBuirette Start0.120.15Buirette Finish111110.5Titration volume of acid used10.999.95Superdrug12AverageBuirette Start9.91215.9Buirette Finish27.821.124.45Titration volume of acid used9.89.114.35Settlers12AverageBuirette Start0.2126.2Buirette Finish1121.116.05Titration volume of acid used10.89.19.95Biodol12AverageBuirette Start0.50.10.3Buirette Finish12.412.312.35Titration volume of acid used11.912.212.05AnalysisAverage ResultsAntacid TabletAverage Titration Volume Of Acid Used In mlRennie Tablet15.5Indigestion Relief Tablet9.95Boots Original Tablet5.95Superdrug Tablet9.45Settlers Tablet9.95Biodol tablet12.05AnalysisVolume of moles in acid that was neutralised* Rennie Tablet Moles = dm3 ? Concentration Moles = (15.5 / 1000) ? 1 Moles = 0.0155 ? 1 Moles = 0.0155* Indigestion Relief Tablet Moles = dm3 ? Concentration Moles = (9.95 / 1000) ? 1 Moles = 0.00995 ? 1 Moles = 0.00995* Boots Original Tablet Moles = dm3 ? Concentration Moles = (5.95 / 1000) ? 1 Moles = 0.00595 ? 1 Moles = 0.00595* Superdrug Tablet Moles = dm3 ? Concentration Moles = (9.45 / 1000) ? 1 Moles = 0.00945 ? 1 Moles = 0.000945* Settlers Tablet Moles = dm3 ? Concentration Moles = (9.95 / 1000) ? 1 Moles = 0.00995 ? 1 Moles = 0.00995* Biodol tablet Moles = dm3 ? Concentration Moles = (12.05 / 1000) ? 1 Moles = 0.01205 ? 1 Moles = 0.01205Looking at the results I found out that the most efficient and best tablet is the Rennie Tablet. This is due to it being able to neutralize the most acid. Not surprisingly in my prediction I predicted that this tablet would neutralize 32ml of acid but obviously the experiment was inaccurate as the antacid Rennie tablet was only able to neutralize half of the value predicted. Most tablets that I tested including my own came out as only able to neutralize this was either to my inaccurate testing or the incapability of the antacid to naturalize. The Boots original tablet did come close to my predicted measurement. Again this was promptly due to by inaccuracy and methods I used to test the antacids.So when our stomachs produce gastric gas to aid indigestion and causes problems such stated in my theory The Boots original would be the ideal antacid to use to cure us of the disorder.EvaluationBy analysing by results the experiment was successful to its aim and provided enough information for further investigation. But to make my data more accurate I could have done a number of things differently.This experiment is not very reliable and accurate because you cannot find out the exact amount of acid the antacid can neutralize.* Used a stirring machine to accurately stir each solution until it was fully neutralized.* Some of the tablet was stuck to the basin so I could prevent it by using a different basin which wont let any crushed tablet to stay behind. This will allow my experiment to be more accurate because it is decreasing the volume of the tablet and alternating the calculations.* Used less bromophenol blue as is again alternates the calculation as it increases the solutions volume. The experiment could have faulted due to the amount of indicator in the solution, which can affect it.* The Evaporation of the water from the solution in high levels of heat. If the acid was not added soon enough, the solution would become a suspension, and not all of the antacid will be put to use.* If I were to repeat this experiment I would carry out each tablet between 3 and 5 tests and use a greater range of tablets.ConclusionI conclude The Rennie indigestion tablet was tested to be the best. This was because it was able to neutralize most volume in dm� of hydrochloric acid. I believe to be due to its greater mass over the other tablets. It would have contained a greater amount of alkaline so could neutralise more acid.

x

Hi!
I'm Dora!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Click here