To diagnosis this case it requires some information and tests such as . Family history with any brain disorder.. Dose any trauma happened to the child. .
????. Physical exam (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2017)..
Electroencephalography (EEG), This test measures waves of electrical movement in the brain through “electrodes attached to the scalp“ (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2017) that helps to move the wave to the EEG (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2017). During the absence seizures the EEG detect the abnormal electrical action in the brain by small elctrodes that placed on the scalp, and linked to the EEG by wires. These electrodes receive signals from the brain and register them on the computer as a waves ( Scott Segan, 2017). . Brain scan such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2017). Based on the information in the case i think Kaden has absence seizures, it is a type of Epilepsy and caused by abnormal electrical signal from neurons in the brain to the body. The prognosis of this disease depends on the follow up and the treatment by antiseizure medicines and the change of life style such as good sleeping, healthy food, exercise, reduce stres by a good way.
Most of the child respond to the treatment and they become better ( Scott Segan, 2017).B2The human brain composed of a collection of nerve cells called neurons, and connected with each other by axons. Neurons do different functions in the brain for example when we think,feel, move and so on. It generates an electrical nerve signal in the brain that transfer to the body by axons this called action potential(Tatum WO, et al, 2008).
When using EEG the electrodes placed on the scalp, which take the electrical signals that result from the neurons function. Each of neurons electrically charged by“ membrane transport proteins “ (Tatum WO, et al, 2008) that push ions through their envelope. Out side the cells neurons exchange ions respectively. When the neurons pushed by ions so they push the other neurons beside them as a wave and this process called “ `Volume conduction“(Tatum WO, et al, 2008). When the waves reach to the scalp the metal of the electrodes can thrust or revoke the electron, because of the metal can thrust or revoke the electrons easily, so the thrust or revoke between each electrodes can be measured by voltmeter, and this gives the signals to the EEG as a waves divided into ( delta, theta, alpha and beta).
Each of these waves represent a different function in the brain (Tatum WO, et al, 2008).The episodes occur suddenly several time in a day and cause unawareness for 10-15 seconds that called absence seizures. A billion of neurons in the brain have an essential roll to transfer information and send electrical impulses from brain to the body.
when the pattern of these electrical impulses changed suddenly the seizures happens(Harvard medical school, 2012).Absence seizures may affect an area in the brain such as thalamus and brain stem. Thalamus is an important part in the brain situated in the center of the brain between the midbrain and cerebral cortex and have more than one function one of them consciousness which affected during the seizures and stops for a few second and brain stem located in the lower part of the brain under cerebellum and above the spinal cord, like thalamus have an important roll for consciousness and also might be affected during the seizures(Futatsugi Y1 and Riviello JJ Jr, 1998).