TitleA cross sectional study ofhypertension, blood sugar level and their correlation with Body Mass Index IntroductionWorldwide prevalence of obesity has seen a sharp rise, withWorld Health Organisation (WHO) statistics showing that it has nearly tripledsince 1975. Obesity was once thought to be a disease of developed countries,However, India , amongst other developing nations is now warming up to thetrend, and is seeing a rise in the ubiquity of obesity, which has reachedepidemic proportions. Indian obesity rates have almost doubled since 2005-061.
Obesity, or being overweight may bedefined as an abnormal and excessive fat accumulation that leaves a personsusceptible to significant health risks. According to WHO, obesity andoverweight can be classified with the help of the Body Mass Index (BMI). A BMIof more than or equal to 25 is classified as overweight and a BMI greater thanor equal to 30 is classified as obese.Obesity, totally preventable disease is a prominent riskfactor and paves the way for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension andother diseases such as diabetes.Hypertension in itself is a silent and deadly disease, owingto the fact that one may go asymptomatic for years. Hypertension also increasesthe risk of other cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction and strokes.According to 2016 data from WHO, India has the second highestnumber of people living with Diabetes Mellitus, with 62 million Indiansaffected by the disease.
An analysis, by the Indian Heart Association, projectsthat India will be home to almost a 110 million diabetics by the year 2035. Need for studyAnalysingcurrent scenario, we can infer that India, will have an increase in the numberof people suffering from non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension anddiabetes. Therefore, there is an imminent need, to control its exponential risein rate. To begin the control, causative factors need to be identified andcorrelations need to be made. Obesity, being one of the risk factors needs tobe controlled too. People need to be educated too, about the relation thatobesity and overweight have with non-communicable diseases, and this can beaccomplished only with proof that can be obtained by systematic observationalstudy. Objectives of the study1.
To assess the magnitude andprevalence of obesity in the study population.2. To correlate the various BMI’sobtained to blood pressure and blood sugar level and to analyse the relationbetween them. Materials and Methods· Study Design –A cross sectional observational study will be conducted.· Study area –The study will be conducted at the General Medicine outpatient department(OPD), district hospital, Karwar.
· Inclusion criteria – Population coming to the OPD, under 50 years of age, of both sexes,who are willing to participate in the study· Study duration –The study will be conducted from 1stJune 2018 to 31st July 2018 at tertiary care centre, Karwar.· Sample size –A study of around 150 people will be undertaken.· Procedure – (1)Patients in the outpatient departmentwill first be asked for their consent.
A consent form will be given, afterrequesting them to participate in the study, and explaining to them what thestudy pertains to and requires. (2)A few questions will be asked abouttheir socio-demographic details, dietary pattern and past medicinal history.(3)Arterial blood pressure will bemeasured over the brachial artery, manually, with a sphygmomanometer.(4) Height in meters and weight in kilogramswill be noted, and BMI will be calculated, with the following formula2 – BMI (kg/m2) = mass(kg) / height (m)2 (5)Blood will be collected asepticallyand sent to the Biochemistry lab, for blood sugar level analysis.
· Statistical Analysis – After completion of study, all the information gathered, willbe analysed and presented in suitable tabular and graphical forms. Percentages,Pearson’s chi-square (x2) and Z-testwill be used wherever required. ImplicationsBy conducting this study, we will beable to analyse and identify the relation that obesity, or overweight has tohypertension, and diabetes, and show that it is indeed a risk factor for thesediseases. References1. According to the National FamilyHealth Survey -4 (NHFS-4) survey conducted in 2015-16.2. BMI formula taken from CDC (Centrefor Disease Control and Prevention) website.