Tissue ComparisonsCiliated Epithelium (trachea) vs. Intestinal Epithelium (small intestine):Examples:Locations:Ciliated epithelium can be observed in the lining of the trachea, a hollow tube made of cartilage that connects the larynx to the lungs, as well as the lining of the fallopian tubes of the female reproductive system.
Intestinal epithelium is present in the inner lining of the small intestine, which is found in the lower abdominal cavity.Functions:Ciliated epithelium in the trachea is responsible for the even distribution of mucus around said tract for the filtration of harmful particles from the air, including potentially pathogenic bacteria. It also filters large particles from ventilated air, as well as increasing the surface area of the trachea, in order to warm up breathed in air to near body temperature. Cilia on the cell help it carry out its function, as the cilia, being hair like, help increase the surface area where air is filtered, and also evenly spread mucus from their movement.The main function of intestinal epithelium is to extract nutrients from ingested food. It does so largely by active transport, which uses ATP.
This process is carried out by cells called enterocytes.Both tissues also have goblet cells, which secrete mucus to lubricate the lining of the epithelium. In the case of ciliated epithelium, the mucus is produced to reduce the friction caused between the air intake and the epithelium, as well as to filter the air going into the lungs (the mucus is sticky, so particles will struggle to escape it upon contact). In the case of intestinal epithelium, the goblet cells help lubricate the lining of the small intestine to make ingested material travel through it with reduced friction.
Similarities:Both epithelia are variations of columnar epithelium. Cells in columnar epithelium tend to be upright and more tall than wide. Both tissues also contain goblet cells, which have a curved in lower-middle section, a wide top and a wide base when they collapse to secrete mucins. When not secreting mucins goblet cells are columnar. Both tissues also have a high mitochondrion count, as they require more energy than the average cell.
Both types of epithelium are used as linings for a lumen, intestinal epithelium is the lining for the intestinal lumen, while ciliated epithelium lines the tracheal lumenDifferences:Ciliated EpitheliumIntestinal EpitheliumUsed for spread of mucus and air filtrationPseudostratified epithelium *(1)Mostly straight lining with no protrusions that lines the tracheal lumen.Mucus used for filtration of airUsed for the absorption of nutrientsSimple epithelium*(2)Formed of structures called villi, which are finger shaped and protrude out of the wall of the intestinal lumen, filled with capillaries. The villi increase the surface area on which nutrients are absorbed by the intestine, which improves the quantity of nutrients absorbed.
Mucus used for protection of the epithelium1: Pseudostratified epithelium is a simple epithelium that has nuclei at inconsistent heights that it resembles multiple layers of cells, although in actuality only a single layer of cells exists.2: Simple epithelium is an epithelium composed of only one layer of cells.OrganellesCiliated Epithelium Intestinal EpitheliumCells in this epithelium features special organelles called cilia, which are small, moving hair like structures protruding from the top of the cell called protuberances.High mitochondrion countThis epithelium features cells called enterocytes, which have a modified outer cell membrane. This modification makes the side of the cell exposed to the intestinal lumen resemble brush hairs, called microvilli. Those hair like structures are actually protrusions in the outer cell membrane, and allow the transportation of molecules into the cell, and further increase the surface area between the epithelium and ingested material, further increasing the quantity of nutrients absorbed.High mitochondrion countBoth tissues have cells with a higher than normal mitochondrion count, for different reasons.Intestinal epithelial cells have a high mitochondrion count in order to carry out active transport and extract useful nutrients from food, and into the bloodstream.
Active transport moves molecules against a concentration gradient, and therefore requires energy. Mitochondria are responsible for the production of ATP (energy), so the higher mitochondrion count would benefit the cell, as it can work at a higher metabolism.Both tissues also feature goblet cells. The main function of goblet cells is the production and secretion of mucins, proteins that are rich in carbohydrate.
These cells have large sections of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and also a high amount of secretory vesicles filled with mucin to act as a buffer. The mucin is released to the epithelium via exocytosis.Ciliated cells also have a high mitochondrion count, as moving their cilia requires ATP. Because their cilia is almost always moving, a high mitochondrion count benefits their function, as they require more ATP than the average cell.Cartilage connective tissue vs adiposeLocationsFunctionsSimilaritiesDifferencesOrganelles