Throughout our history,many people from other countries have come here to live here andbecome citizens. The Thirteenth Amendment was passed on to abolish slavery.

PresidentAbraham Lincoln believed it was an important turning point in the war, transforming theviolence to protect the nation into a fight for human freedom. After slavery, the vicious laws,organizations, and poverty came to stay. Two major laws were introduced Jim Crow Laws andBlack Codes.

These laws allowed certain limits of rights to African Americans,which includedthe right to marry, own property, and sue in the court of laws. During the Reconstruction Era,African Americans took on leading roles and held publicoffice and seeked legislative changes for equality and the right to vote. They separated the blacksfrom the whites and reduced the progress they had made. The Jim Crow Laws were certainthings they could not do like; they could not use the same public restrooms or school. Interracialmarriage was forbidden and most blacks couldn’t vote because they could not pass the voterliteracy tests. Even through Jim Crow Laws were adopted in northern states,blacks still wentthrough discrimination at their jobs or when they tried to buy a house or get an education. Black Codes also made it illegal for them to serve on juries,the right to vote, testify againstwhites, or serve in state militias and it also required black sharecroppers and farmers to signannual labor contracts with white landowners and If they refused, they could be arrested andVixama 2hired out for work. They had to buy land from their former white slave owners based on theirfinancial position and have been denied education and wages under slavery.

After the Civil War,the former slaves got a hold of the land but was rapidly grasped fromthem and returned to the whites by the federal troops. After slavery,black women preferred to bea housewife during poverty. Black churches became a focus in African American culture andprovided a development for learning,socializing and political organization. They found aneducation at every level,from grade schools to basic education. The Freedmen Bureau came into play as it established to help former slaves.

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It was establishedin March 1865 to help people achieve political freedom and economic stability.They took steps to improve their own condition by looking the rights that had been denied tothem which was land,financial security,education and the right to take part in the politicalprocess but they were faced with the defeated white southerners who were determined to keepblacks imprisoned. The widespread of devastation in the South cause Congress to create the Freedmen’s Bureau. The Bureau fought for the rights of the African American education,establishing scores ofpublic schools to which the freed people and poor whites could receive both elementary andhigher education. Honorable institutions like Fisk University,Hampton University, and DillardUniversity are part of the legacy of the Freedmen’s Bureau. In the Reconstruction Era,Congresspassed and enforced laws to ensure civil and political rights to African Americans in the South.

The laws Congress passed were the 13th,14th,15th Amendments. All three Amendmentswere the start of freedom for the freedom. They took up the rights,opportunities andresponsibilities of citizenship. The 14th Amendment provided equal protection to citizens.”TheVixama 3amendment resolved pre-Civil War questions of African American citizenship by stating that “allpersons born or naturalized in the United States… are citizens of the United States and of thestate in which they reside.'” (History.

com Staff); not only did this amendment gave themprivileges and rights but it also granted them equal protection of the law.