There aremany species of penguins in this world. The emperor penguins are recognized bytheir distinctive morphological features. They are the tallest penguins.

At theextreme low temperature in the arcticwinter, they are the only animal species to inhabit Antarctica open space. Emperorpenguins have excellent reserve of insulating body fat and multiply scaled feathers,thus preventing heat loss. Their arteries and veins are situated close togetherallowing them to recycle. They live in the most desolate, coldest and windiestplaces of the earth. They can travel up to about 50 miles to reach stablebreeding grounds on the thick Arctic ice. One group of scientists, estimatedthe population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using asingle synoptic survey.

Using a combination of medium resolution and Very HighResolution (VHR) satellite, they examined the whole continental coastline ofAntarctica imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Theremotely-sensed images were then analyzed using a supervised classificationmethod to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts ofpenguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert theseclassified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm. Likefor many wild mammals and birds, prolonged periods of feeding and fasting isnormal phenomenon of life in emperor penguins. During winter season, feedingcompetes with other activities, such as survival priority, for example,molting, reproducing and migrating.  To keep themselves warm and dry, the feathers ofpenguin are very important.

In frigid ocean water. The penguin’s molt is sometimes called a catastrophic molt, because unlike mostbirds that will molt a fewfeathers at a time, penguins molt allof their feathers all at once. Usually Penguins undergo one complete moltyearly usually after their breeding season.

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During each breeding season, femalelays her egg and then she hands over to the male, then females leave to feed.  The egg is incubated on the feet of theparents. The eggs are hidden from harsh weather and protected by feathered skin.This process is called, brood pouch.Compared with other penguin species who are usually aggressively territorial,emperor penguins huddle together for warmth.

This togetherness is unique forthis species. They take turns moving towards the inside of the pack, where itis warmer, thereby sustaining the entire group. Males just sit and wait and protect their egg, during thistime they will lose body weight. The females come back, bringing with them food in their bellies which theyregurgitate for the chicks to eat. When females return, they release the male,who then travel to the ocean for their own food.Introduction:Of the estimated seventeen or eighteen penguinspecies in the world, the emperor penguin is the largest.

It is unique andbeautiful bird and its name was given as, Aptenodytes forsteri. It isthe species in the genus Aptenodytes. Its specific name is in honor of the German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster(Wienecke, B. (2009). Emperor penguins molting,breeding patterns, behavior and thermoregulation are unique.Thisliterature review focuses on the molting and breeding pattern of emperorpenguin, and this largest penguin is compared with several important otherpenguins in the world. The features and characteristics, their behavior andadaptation to cold, mechanisms of shedding of their feathers, breeding cycle,thermoregulation and endocrinological alteration will be reviewed.

They are heavily dependent on seaice, therefore, are sensitive to changes in sea ice concentration due to globalwarming. Penguins play important rolesin ecosystems both in the ocean and on land. Penguins serve as food for predators such as leopard seals andseabirds in cold areas, along with foxes, leopards, and even crabs in warmerclimates. If penguins,including Emperor Penguins were togo extinct, the predatorsare affected.The Antarctic continent is warming. Becauseof this rapid warming, sea ice along the western Antarctic Peninsula isshrinking in size, and the sea-ice season is shorter.

 The loss of sea iceis harming Emperor penguin chicks and adults. Emperor penguins rear theirchicks on land-locked sea ice. When sea ice breaks up before their chicks havematured and grown their waterproof feathers, chicks that are swept into theocean are likely to die. Adults also likely to die due to lack of food. Detailedunderstanding and studying the penguins is needed, as these species areendangered. The emperor penguin is not “species ofleast concern”, but the species on the verge of extinction.

A completeand detailed knowledge about their ecology is required, and a poorunderstanding of their total breeding population. critical to their futuresurvival. Featuresand characteristics of Emperor Penguin:The seventeen or eighteen types of penguins worldwide (Subramanianet al, 2013) include Emperorpenguin, Kingpenguin, Adeliepenguin, Chinstrappenguin, Gentoopenguin, Rockhopperpenguin, Erect-crestedpenguin, Macaronipenguin, Fiordlandpenguin, Snarespenguin, Royalpenguin, Yellow-eyedpenguin, African(jackass) penguin,Galapagospenguin, Humboldtpenguin, Magellanicpenguin, and Little(blue) penguin.