There are
many species of penguins in this world. The emperor penguins are recognized by
their distinctive morphological features. They are the tallest penguins. At the
extreme low temperature in the arctic
winter, they are the only animal species to inhabit Antarctica open space. Emperor
penguins have excellent reserve of insulating body fat and multiply scaled feathers,
thus preventing heat loss. Their arteries and veins are situated close together
allowing them to recycle. They live in the most desolate, coldest and windiest
places of the earth. They can travel up to about 50 miles to reach stable
breeding grounds on the thick Arctic ice. One group of scientists, estimated
the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a
single synoptic survey. Using a combination of medium resolution and Very High
Resolution (VHR) satellite, they examined the whole continental coastline of
Antarctica imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. The
remotely-sensed images were then analyzed using a supervised classification
method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of
penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these
classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm. Like
for many wild mammals and birds, prolonged periods of feeding and fasting is
normal phenomenon of life in emperor penguins. During winter season, feeding
competes with other activities, such as survival priority, for example,
molting, reproducing and migrating.  To keep themselves warm and dry, the feathers of
penguin are very important. In frigid ocean water. The penguin’s molt is sometimes called a catastrophic molt, because unlike most
birds that will molt a few
feathers at a time, penguins molt all
of their feathers all at once. Usually Penguins undergo one complete molt
yearly usually after their breeding season. During each breeding season, female
lays her egg and then she hands over to the male, then females leave to feed.  The egg is incubated on the feet of the
parents. The eggs are hidden from harsh weather and protected by feathered skin.
This process is called, brood pouch.
Compared with other penguin species who are usually aggressively territorial,
emperor penguins huddle together for warmth. This togetherness is unique for
this species. They take turns moving towards the inside of the pack, where it
is warmer, thereby sustaining the entire group. Males just sit and wait and protect their egg, during this
time they will lose body weight. 
The females come back, bringing with them food in their bellies which they
regurgitate for the chicks to eat. When females return, they release the male,
who then travel to the ocean for their own food.


Of the estimated seventeen or eighteen penguin
species in the world, the emperor penguin is the largest. It is unique and
beautiful bird and its name was given as, Aptenodytes forsteri. It is
the species in the genus Aptenodytes. Its specific name is in honor of the German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster
(Wienecke, B. (2009). Emperor penguins molting,
breeding patterns, behavior and thermoregulation are unique.

literature review focuses on the molting and breeding pattern of emperor
penguin, and this largest penguin is compared with several important other
penguins in the world. The features and characteristics, their behavior and
adaptation to cold, mechanisms of shedding of their feathers, breeding cycle,
thermoregulation and endocrinological alteration will be reviewed.

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They are heavily dependent on sea
ice, therefore, are sensitive to changes in sea ice concentration due to global
warming. Penguins play important roles
in ecosystems both in the ocean and on land. Penguins serve as food for predators such as leopard seals and
seabirds in cold areas, along with foxes, leopards, and even crabs in warmer
climates. If penguins,
including Emperor Penguins were to
go extinct, the predators
are affected.

The Antarctic continent is warming. Because
of this rapid warming, sea ice along the western Antarctic Peninsula is
shrinking in size, and the sea-ice season is shorter. The loss of sea ice
is harming Emperor penguin chicks and adults. Emperor penguins rear their
chicks on land-locked sea ice. When sea ice breaks up before their chicks have
matured and grown their waterproof feathers, chicks that are swept into the
ocean are likely to die. Adults also likely to die due to lack of food. Detailed
understanding and studying the penguins is needed, as these species are
endangered. The emperor penguin is not “species of
least concern”, but the species on the verge of extinction. A complete
and detailed knowledge about their ecology is required, and a poor
understanding of their total breeding population. critical to their future

and characteristics of Emperor Penguin:

The seventeen or eighteen types of penguins worldwide (Subramanian
et al, 2013) include Emperor
penguin, King
penguin, Adelie
penguin, Chinstrap
penguin, Gentoo
penguin, Rockhopper
penguin, Erect-crested
penguin, Macaroni
penguin, Fiordland
penguin, Snares
penguin, Royal
penguin, Yellow-eyed
penguin, African
(jackass) penguin,
penguin, Humboldt
penguin, Magellanic
penguin, and Little
(blue) penguin.


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