This essay is aimed to explain and discuss the theory of criminology and focus on good impact of crime in our society. The theme of normality of crime in our society goes with the believe of some of the Authors especially Durkheim. E which focus more on Anomie. This mean that rules on how people ought to behave with each other were breaking down and thus people did not know What to expect from others.
Expectations on behaviours are confused and unclear to there believes in society which becomes crimes against each others, thus they act on their own believe and ascertain crime to be there day to day activities. Crime is normal because a society exempt from it is utterly impossible. A society in which criminal acts are no longer committed, the sentiment to offend would have to be found without exception in all individual consciousness, and they must be found to exist with the same degree as sentiments apply to them.
For the collective sentiments, in which they are protected by the penal law of the people of a specified moment, of it history to take possession for the public to acquire a stronger hold where that have insufficient grip. On sociology at Hewett website (Durkheim Anomie) Durkheim felt that sudden change causes a state of Anomie, the system break down, either during a great prosperity or great depression, anomie is the same result. On this Website Durkheim let us know that crime occur has natural day to day occurrences that helps us discover ourselves and think ahead on coming challenges to attain our oriented goal.
The relation between the yearly number of crimes and the population, tended to decline, it might be believe that crime, while still normal, is tending to lose this character of normality. Statistics enable us to follow the course of criminality. It has everywhere increase. Crime consider to occur as a function of the way society is integrated and its has basis in social factors. (Durkheim and Merton) on there similarities of positive of crime to the society. A society without crime would be pathological.
For example over investment in security company, without crime and deviance been committed, no one will be thinking installing cctv, access passes card, iron gate, American fence and all other electronics gadget that increase technologies, physical determent. These increases government earning from the Tax paid on security equipment and also provide employment for the society. Some people, might define crime as doing of wrong; this is a commonly use approach related to immorality, but not all action or activities that might be considered immoral are considered crimes.
For example, poverty and social deprivation might be considered crime against humanity. Thus criminal law is used to enforce regulation concerning public health or pollution not because they are normally wrong but because it is considered to be the most effective way of ensuring that the regulation are complied with. An analysis of publicly available statistical and documentary information on economics, social and demographic changes within the town and on patterns of crime and demands for policing.
This has included information from the 1981 – 1991 census (small area and the local basic statistics). In Macclesfield borough, Cheshire county and prestbury parish councils all in England. Public are also be able to beneficial extensive quality of life. “Robert Alun Jones (1974:61) explains that Durkheim first suggested that they could be recognised by the existence of some predetermined legal sanction or, in case of moral and religious believe by their reaction to those forms of individual belief and action they perceived as threatening.
In Durkheim suggestion, effect of crime our society more advance moral, religious and other social enhancement and make the society secured. Furthermore, Gianfranco . P (2000:82). Explain that Durkheim advance some, at least of the criticisms of modern society, from a standpoint foreign to most anti-modernist critiques, and committed as he was in particular to the right of individuals to freedom and equality. However, without reasonable access to the social approved means, people will attempts to find some alternative way – including criminal behaviour – to resolve the pressure to achieve (Merton 1938).
Thus crime committed by group of young people- or gangs that seriously victimises the larger community is in part, a by- product of effort of lower- class youth to attain goals valued within there own subcultural social world. (Mays, 1954; Cohen, 1955; Downes, 1956; Morris, 1957; Miller, 1958; Cloward and Ohlin, 1960; Matza, 1964; Spergel, 1964; Willmott, 1966; Parker, 1974; Pryce, 1979). The realist method delineates how crime is focused on certain geographical areas and certain groups within those areas, for example blacks rather whites, and poor people rather than rich.
The most vulnerable in the society have the greatest risk of crime, but also the impact of crime in them is greater because there lack of money and resources. Moreover, the people who suffer most from other social problem (physical and mental illness, bad housing). The effect of crime improves the standard of living and increase technology advance to restructure the society and eradicate poverty. Robert Alun Jones (1974,v2: 67). Explain, that Durkheim describe as normal did not mean resignation to necessary evil; it means crime was useful, “a factor in public health, an integrative element in healthy society”(1895:98).
In book one of The Divisions of labor, Durkheim had shown that “crime” consists of an action, which offends strong, and it can well defined collective feelings. Those feelings would have to reinforce in each and every individual to the degree of strength, required to counteract the opposite feelings. For example, without some people smoking “cannabis” and committed crime, society will not go on research on cannabis and they will never realise the good effect of this herb to other in the society suffering diseases like motoneurone.
Tierney. J (1996). “Crime is inevitable” these view that it is necessary, though, has struck some people as very odd. According to Durkheim crime is necessary because it is functionally useful; it helps to maintain healthy society by fulfilling an ‘adaptive’ function and ‘boundary’ function. It prevents the society from stagnating, and the criminals concerned are, therefore, innovators who help society to adapt changing circumstances.
From this viewpoint too much conformity- that is too little crime- would out the brakes on society’s development. Critical criminologists have been pushing beyond the confines of the traditional view, not to neglect it entirely, but to show that it is one aspect of a more complex and rapidly changing state of affairs. As crime become frequent, its also status as an exceptional event and become “a standard background feature of our life- a taken for granted element of modernity”. Garland 1996:446). Crime rate recently have been falling slightly, but this only serves for underline the changing situation. It is no longer simply a question of the “amount” of crime, but it is more importantly, the change in socio-economic role of function. Criminals are no longer innovators in the mertonian sense, (Merton 1957) seeking status by deviant means, they are just doing what everyone is doing. Crime is increasingly. This brings to a second aspect of changing nature of crime.
Behind the statistical and cultural nomarlisation whereby criminality- especially, but not only, economic criminality- increasing functions as a mechanism for the reproduction of social and economic life rather than simply “disruption”. We enter the epoch of a “mixed economy of governance” in which criminality is no longer simply a target of, but itself a form of, governance at the level of economic processes related to accumulation of capital, the social process of community life, and the political process of power and rules.
In becoming a governance criminality does not cease to be “brutal and disruption” of civilised life. Conclusion “Russia” criminal world has become the only force that can give stability, that is capable of stamping out debts, of guaranteeing the bank repayment of loans and considering property disputes efficiently and fairly. The criminal world has essentially taken on the functions of legislative and judicial authority. “(Leitzel 1995:43; William1997: 67)”.
Participation in illegal economy (crime) furthermore constitutes one the few realistic options available to many families who simply need to ensure a basic level of subsistence’s. Illegality makes certain commodities or services usually profitable to the society. Thus the drug trade has become one of the central economics activities of the late twentieth century, drawing millions of people from the peasant villages of third world countries to the inner cities of the industrialised north- into networks of exchange which provide great wealth for some and a tolerable living for many who have limited alternative sources of income.