The which includes biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social

The Summary of Sexuality and GenderIn this summary , it will be discussed thatmain objectives which are related to sexuality and gender topic under the lightof human sexuality , sexual orientation , gender , perspectives on genderinequality . It is very well-known fact that the concept ofsexuality has changed over the years. Sexuality which is linked withreproduction in traditional societies is different today.

this event deprivedit of a certain sense. Sexuality which includes biological, erotic, physical,emotional, social or spiritual feelings and behaviors can be described thequality of people experiencing and expressing themselves as sexual beings. Scientistshave explored animals to understand their biological sexual behavior.

In addition, male anatomy differs from female anatomy . David Barash defended that men aremore complex than women and this was supported by animal experiments . Accordingto him ,  men were born to impregnate . Womenare biologically predisposed to monogamy . So the number of male sperm and thenumber of female ovaries are not equal . This evolutionary approach is notsupported by Steven rose who claim that human behaviors are shaped by theenvironment and instinctive movements are scarce .

An Other topic is socialinfluences on sexual behavior . Heterosexual is common point In the allsocieties which creates basis of family and marriage . Judith Lorber arguesthat there are ten different sexual identities . At this point we can talkabout sexual norm which in all societies made to people discouraging  and condemning are in sexual choice .

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Memberof society learn these norms from socialization. homosexuality is encouraged insome societies such as Ancient Greeks . Instead of innate, sexual responsescome from that society accepts .  Sexual attraction is related to people’sexternal appearance .

With developing technology, people started to controlwhen gonna they have a baby . It is the rise of contraception which is theexample of procreative tech . Nowadays , we see generally all result of babybefore born at the medical centers instead of past such as sonogram ,amniocentesis etc . Designing babies is revolutionary event which is based on  genetic engineering . On the other hand , abortiondebates are an important issue . in many societies there are different thoughts; There are societies in which abortion is common as well as pro-life societies.

Another subtitle is sexuality in western culture . All sexual behaviors areprohibited by Christian teachings except for the reproduction . Some groupshave opposed it over time . Traditional attitudes differ from liberalenlightenment after 1960 . Today , film and media have an effect on thisdifference . The proportions of prostitutes and premarital sex acts in Kinsey’sstudies are shocked the many groups . Gagnon and Simon continued to work on thetheoretical sexuality in data increasingly in the footsteps of Kinsey and  elaborate rules , a metaphorical script andrituals are important key concept .

Personal scripts and historical-culturalscripts are produced by them .The Another important topic is sexualorientation . The sexual orientation is simply that theindividual feels a sense of sexual attraction to either in their own gender orin opposite sex or in both genders . These concepts are grouped under 3main headings ; heterosexuality , homosexuality , and bisexuality . Manysociologists argue that sexual orientation interacts with environmental factorsand social teachings . Homosexuality in western culture is the subtitle .Moreover , According to Plummer’s study, there are four kinds of homosexualityin modern societies .

Casual homosexuality is linked to situated activities . Personalizedhomosexuality is related as a way of life . Lesbianism took less attention thanmen’s sexual orientation . On the other hand , homophobia showed itself , whichis homophobia is a concept involving negative attitudes and feelings towardshomosexuals . At the same time gay and lesbian movements for civil rights forthe brake homophobia and get equality in the society . Queer theory is a theorybased on the idea that no one is bound to their identity and does not determinewho we are . Constant identity suggests that all concepts are consciouslyquestioned in diverse and unpredictable ways .

The diversity of characteristics betweengender is masculinity and femininity . This is a concept that includesbiological gender, sex – based social structures ( including gender roles andother social roles ) and gender identity . Also , the term of sex is based onphysiological and anatomical differences between to explain female and malebodies . Adrenogenital Syndrome, Chromosomes and Hormones are certain points ofnatural differences with in relation between gender and biology . Differentattitudes and behaviors in society are expected from girls and boys . Gendersocialization gives a role for girl and boys in a different ways . Each sex iscultivated in accordance with its role . The gender role is expected behaviors,attitudes and personality traits based on the individual’s gender .

The ideathat social gender based societies form is an academic structure that exists infeminist, philosophical and sociological gender theories. In this view societyand culture create gender roles and this role is shown as ideal or properbehavior to a person of that gender . Gender identities of , ‘ Femininity and Masculinity’ describe socio-cultural categories which used in biology different meanings .It means that femininity and masculinity are shaped by socio-cultural processes. Femininities and masculinities cover plural and dynamic which change withculture and individuals act . Gender development is everywhere from the mediato the family, even in education which build the gender order .

Genderhierarchy is that women or man being superior to another and the peak ofhierarchy is hegemonic masculinity in our world which dominant of all groups . Thereis process which is from strong order to weak order in the hierarchy of sex ; complicit, subordinated , homosexual ( masculinity ) and subordinated , emphasized andresistant ( femininity ) – more powerful than less powerful ) .   Genderinequality is a concept used to describe unequal behaviors , attitudes , andperceptions that individuals are exposed to according to their gender . Theirorigins are differences in gender roles . the theory of maternal deprivationwas put forward by Bowlby and argued that there will be the difference betweenthe mother of a growing individual and the growing individuals .

Feministtheory aims to describe the nature of gender inequality . This theorem coversmany areas such as male and female roles , communication , philosophy andeducation through all the injustices in life . Liberal feminism is anindividual feminist theory that focuses on the ability of women to maintaintheir equality through their actions and choices . The mostimportant emphasizes that the political rights of women and men must be equal .Socialist feminism developed by Marx is a feminist movement based on theconnection of patriarchy and capitalism . Socialist feminism argues that if theoppressed economic and cultural resources cease , only the level that the womanwill attain . Radical feminism is a perspective that makes a radical call tosocial regime in which male domination is lifted in the social and economiccontext .

Black feminism is a system of thought that emphasizes that sexism ,class print , gender identity and racism are inextricably linked .BU?RA SARPER SEÇEN                                                                                                                         2151678