The Sundarbans delta is hometo a large human population of 4.5 million in India and 7.5 million inBangladeshInside the Sundarbans deltaforests cover nearly 10,000 sq km. Of which the total land area is 4,143 km² And water area of 1,874 km² Sundarbans is also the only extensive mangroveforests exposed to freshwater and seawater mix. The forest’s significant stronghold is of theRoyal Bengal Tiger, an endangered species.
These forests of theSundarbans, the mangrove, presents a natural buffer, a bulwark against coastalerosion and seawater ingress into one of the most densely populated regions ofthe world. The Sundarbans forest has arich ecology of 334 species of plants, 49 species of mammals, 400 species of fish, 320 species of birds, 53 species of reptiles, 11 amphibian species, several invertebrates,phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, mollusks. However in recent years humanactivities have induced climate change which threatens the delicate balancebetween land, air, and sea of The Sundarbans. The Problem of Global Warming in Sundarbans National Park: Global warming in theSundarbans causes many significant problems.To mention a few: With increasing sea levels, islandsare vanishingThe accelerating salinity inthe water and soil has severely adversely affected to the health of mangrove treesand forests and the grade of soil and crops. There have been grave dangers tohydrological parameters and change in the fishing design of the local fishermenof West Bengal and Bangladesh, resulting in disastrous conclusions. Cyclones and abnormal monsoonraining patterns due to climate change are damaging ecology and humankind ofthe Sundarbans delta.
The Alarming Situation of the Forest: Extent of the problem It has been observed that thetemperature of the H2O in the Sundarbans has increased at an booming rate of0.5 degrees celsius per decade compared to the complied global sea temperaturewarming at the rate of 0.06 degrees celsius per decade.This rapid increase intemperature of the sea has severe implications on Sundarbans’ aquatic life. Sincethe Sundarbans area as it is an estuarine delta this affects it the most.
In the past 25 years, sealevel has also risen at a ratealmost twice the universal level.This is due to acombination of factorsincluding land existence systems. Due to non-stop submergence in higher water, asa result of rise of sea level, the plants arebeing noted to be smaller andless wide with fewerbranches and leaves resultingin lesser rates ofphotosynthesis andregeneration of the mangroves. The sea level rise is alsoaffecting the availability ofsediment, directly brew theestablishment of newgroves.Between 1777 and 1971,non-stop deforestation andland recovery activities havebeen carried out in theSundarbans region.
This deforestationhas raised man-animal conflict, local liquidate of several species and summedup to the overall biological loss of the region. In adition to the aforementionedfactors, the cleaning of forests have not benefitted self-sustaining agricultureon the flood plain, as it tends to be sank down under saline water of the deltaduring high tide. Analysis of this problem It is observed that anyprocedure to removetrespassing from the forestedareas is likely to bemajorly not favoured by localpoliticians as well asinhabitants. The population density of Sundarbans has increased from about 929persons/square kilometres in the year 2001 to 1,082 persons per square kilometresin 2011. This drastic heavy increase in the population has resulted in further increasein the levels of global warming and climate change.