The human brain has 100 billion plus neurons all having a specific function and certain duty.
In order to understand the brain we must examine its parts and functions. This includes the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem and the functions within those. To fully grasp the brain look at its main parts and the go into more detail and depth into those.
There are 3 main parts to the brain the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.The cerebellum, which is located under the cerebrum. The cerebellum is what allows us to be good at sports and athletics, without it I doubt we could do anything remotely resembling an athlete if we didn’t have it. It is what coordinates voluntary muscle movement, maintains posture and balance. Although It seems to be only a small part of the brain it is one we wouldn’t be going along are lives the same if we didn’t have it.The brainstem which is the body’s regulator for all involuntary movement and a relay center for the brain and body. Its made up of three parts the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata.
The cerebrum which is the largest part of the three main parts, making up about 85% of the brain. Its comprised of a left and right hemisphere. Both hemispheres controlling opposite sides of your body. The right controlling the left and the left controlling the right. Throughout the hemispheres not every function is shared. The right side of your brain controls more imagination and creativity things geared more towards music and art. While the left side is more analytical, it deals with logic, reasoning the same things used in math.
But cerebrum controls the higher functions of the brain. Touch, vision, hearing, speech, reasoning, learning and fine motor controls like being able to move you fingertips are all things the cerebrum is responsible. Without the cerebrum you wouldn’t be you.From the cerebrum we can break it down further into individual lobes that have certain functions that differ from each other. The first set of the four lobes is the the Frontal lobes which resides at the front of your brain and continues to about the first half of your brain. From there it gets broken down into certain sections of the frontal lobes. The motor cortex and the precentral gyrus deal with planning, control and execution of motor skills and voluntary movement. Next to the motor cortex there is a section of the brain called the premotor cortex; It gives the body its ability to move its head and eyes but also gives it a presence of orientation.
It also has another part called the prefrontal cortex which plays a part in what makes you, you. The prefrontal cortex deals a lot with memory, intelligence, concentration, temper and personality. Following the frontal lobes are the Parietal lobes which don’t reach all the way to the brain stem but the upper second fourth to third fourth section of the cerebrum.
The parietal lobes simultaneously receive and interpret incoming signals from the other parts of the brain. It interprets signals like vision, hearing, sensory information and memories. Then under the frontal lobes and Parietal lobes are the temporal lobes. It is located above ear side on the other side of the brain. The Temporal lobes can be divided into two different parts the ventral, the bottom, and the lateral, the side. On the right lateral side of these two lobes is the part of the brain that helps with the human’s recognition of objects and peoples faces. On the left lateral side, the Temporal lobes are involved with verbal memory and the ability to understand and remember language.
Then the rear part enables humans to register other people’s emotions or reactions. At the very rear of the cerebrum is a set of The occipital lobe gives the brain a capacity to process the visual information it receives. It influences how humans perceive colors and shapes. The right side interprets the left and vice versa.All of these parts are outer parts of the brain within the brain there are more sections and parts called deep brain structures and functions. One of these is the Limbic system which is the core and center for our emotions, learning and memory.
It is further comprised of thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus and few other parts but these are the most crucial. Starting with the hypothalamus, it plays a crucial role in controlling hunger, thirst, sleep, and several responses. It also regulates the body’s temperature, blood pressure,emotions and secretion of hormones.
Then the thalamus which relays sensory information and acts like a center for pain perception. Following the thalamus, the hippocampus ,which is located in the temporal lobe, is responsible for the storage of long term memory including not only memory but past knowledge and experiences. Along with memory is seems to play a part in the recalling of facts and events. Then finally the amygdala, which is located on the lateral side of the temporal lobes. Each person has two amygdala. There is a debate or controversy whether or not it’s part of the limbic system because can function on its own without the use of the entire system. But the amygdala is responsible for the perception of emotions, it saves memories to recognize similar events in the future.
There is way more than just one set deep brain system but these are the main ones to touch on. Within the brain there are twelve cranial nerves. Some of these nerves help deal with special senses or controls movements of the face or regulate glands.
Ten of theses twelve cranial nerves originate in the brain stem, while the other two originate in the forebrain. Each cranial nerve has its own roman numeral, name and special task: I olfactory smell, II optic sight,III oculomotor moves the eye/pupil, IV Trochlear moves the eye, V Trigeminal responsible for face sensation, VI Abducens eye movements , VII Facial moves the face and allows the body to salivate, VIII Auditory,Vestibular is in charge of hearing and balance, IX Glossopharyngeal allows the body to taste and swallow, X Vagus crucial for heart rate and digestion, XI Accessory gives the body the ability to move the head, XII Hypoglossal moves the tongue.