The most appropriate solution of oil depletion problem
is to switch to renewable energy sources. The global demand for renewable
energy sources is constantly growing. Almost all developed countries now are developing
and implementing programs related to alternative energy. Furthermore, today the
usage of renewable energy has become an important and obligatory direction for
the development of the energy sector of the future. Moreover, Kazakhstan has
all the necessary resources in this regard. It seems that given the electricity
deficit in the country, especially in the southern regions, the wider use of
alternative sources becomes particularly important. Most countries all over the
world almost entirely depend on fossil fuels like oil, coal and gas. Unconventional
sources of energy can be the energy of the sun, wind, ocean tides, and the
warmth of the earth’s depths. Its attractiveness is caused by inexhaustible
resources, independence from the conjuncture of prices in the world energy
markets and, importantly, ecological purity. Orloff (2017) claims that “alternative or
renewable energy sources show significant promise in helping to reduce the
amount of toxins that are by-products of energy use and help preserve many of
the natural resources that we currently use as sources of energy” (para 1). The greatest advantage of this
solution is that using renewable energy is ecologically clean and it will not
have harmful effects to the nature. It might have low greenhouse production. For
example, while extracting fossil fuels, the air and water pollution can have a
bad influence on the world’s population, which might lead to problems with


cancer, or even to heart attacks. “Wind and solar energy require
essentially no water to operate and thus do not pollute water resources or
strain supply by competing with agriculture, drinking water systems, or other
important water needs” (“Benefits of  Renewable
Energy Use”, 2013, para 10).  Another
benefit is that they are renewable, which means they do not deplete and will
not run out. In addition, these sources are free for use. The greatest disadvantage
is dependence from climatic changes, as the availability of this energy also
depends on it. As explains Orloff (2017), wind power is not always regular, for
continuous power generation constant wind is needed, and therefore if the wind’s
speed declines, the capacity of generated electricity become lower. Similarly, if
the sun is not shining the solar power does not produce the energy and the
amount of it is limited. Another disadvantage is cost of equipment that we need
to use for renewable energy sources, for example, the cost of solar panels.
According to Kitaev (2015), their price ranges from $ 3 to $ 5 per watt of
power and this is without battery accessories, charge controllers, converters.
The same is true for wind energy, as even though wind is free, the cost of wind
turbines is high.


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