broader concept of English that has become the international language is also
influence the development of English language teaching in Indonesia. There are
some parts of English language teaching in Indonesia that still need to be
explored and improved in order to support the aim of using the language, to
communicate as well as respect the intercultural differences of English
speakers around the world in the real context of communication.  The issue of globalization has also forced so
many people around the world as well as Indonesia to master English as the
lingua franca for the sake of their business, marketing, economy and education.
The emergence of advanced information technologies is also one of the reason
why people learn English as the means of their communication.

defined the spread of English from the geographic and historical spread as
three circles which is so helpful. Furthermore, in the most frequently cited
version of the model (Kachru, 1992). In the model, it is
told that the inner circle refers to the traditional bases of English: the UK,
USA, Ireland, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The outer (or extended)
circle refers to the earlier spread of English in non-native settings, where
the language has become a part of the country’s 
important  institutions,  and 
it  plays  an 
important  second language’  role 
in  a multilingual setting:
Moreover, it includes Indonesia’s neighbors Singapore and Malaysia, India, and
over  fifty  other 
territories.  The  expanding 
or  extending  circle 
refers  to  nations 
which recognize the importance of English as an international language,
but which were not colonized by the countries of the inner circle, and which
have not given English any special official status. In these countries, English
is taught as a foreign language. Indonesia belongs to this group, which also
includes China, Japan, Greece and Poland (Kachru, 1992).

Indonesia English has been taught from the very early age of the students.
There are so many education sponsor offer English for young learner lesson. In
the compulsory matter English should be learn formally since Junior high
school. English language teaching curriculum in Indonesia has change over time
to time in order to find the most appropriate method in teaching English. What
is happened is on the same path with what Renandya propose that English is now
taught at increasingly younger age levels. These changes naturally have huge
implications for teaching. Teachers need to be trained and re- trained to meet the
changing language learning needs of their students; new teaching methodology
will need to be used to cater for the diverse pro?ciency levels of the students
and new ways of assessing learning outcomes will also need to be devised. In
some countries (e.g., Malaysia and Vietnam), the training or retraining of
English teachers also included helping teachers improve their language
pro?ciency. In these countries, teachers are expected to possess an advanced
level of pro?ciency in the English language (e.g., C1 or C2 on the Common
European Framework of Reference) (Willy A. Renandya, 2016)

      The improvement of English language
teaching in Indonesia is actually been done by the government, we can see it
from the changes of English language curriculum over time to time. The 1975 curriculum specified that English should be
taught with the audio-lingual approach with an emphasis on the teaching of
linguistic patterns through habit-formation drills (Ministry of Education and
Culture, 1975a, 1975b). As such, the syllabus was created mainly on the basis
of structure.  What emerged then was that
most of the teacher taught their students especially in language structure. It
might be because the requirement of the final examination which was emphasis on
grammar mastery.

We will write a custom essay sample on
The their business, marketing, economy and education. The
Specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page

order now

Then, curriculum 2006 used
the text- based approach. It told the teachers must choose and use genre based
texts, personal text, interpersonal text, and short functional text which
contain of the real life situation. This implies a belief in language as a
system but a system of meanings rather than forms. It undertakes that learning
a language involves of learning how to mean.

In the recent curriculum
named curriculum 2013, we still use text-based model as our instructional model.
The learning procedure is aimed to help students to understand and produce
various kinds of texts. What is meant by text here is any kind of communication
forms which is meaningful or has meaning.
Text – based language
learning  is based on the theory of
communicative competence by Celce-Murcia, Dornyei and Thurrel (1995) which is
in accordance with theory that language is communication , not only a set of
rules consisting of action competence (including listening, speaking, reading and writing),
discourse competence, linguistic competence, sociocultural competence and
strategic competence (S.Thurrell, 1995).

What is stated in curriculum
2013 is actually support the EIL concept that the purpose of learning a
language is to be able to communicate in the real context. Language is
communication. EIL, as a paradigm, recognizes the
international functions of English and its use in a variety of cultural and
economic arenas by speakers of English from diverse lingua-cultural backgrounds
who do not speak each other’s mother tongues (Marlina, 2014). Moreover, Sharifian
(2009) explains that the focus in the EIL paradigm is on the communication
rather than on the speakers’ nationality, skin color, and so on (Sharifian, 2009). However, in
Indonesia most of the teachers still focus on English as a part of British and
American varieties. In his presentation, it stated that British and American
varieties of English still dominate the English language teaching. This is also
happen in Indonesia where most of the English teachers do not have
understanding about the broader notion of English native speaker concept today
that it is not only British and American only but also including many English
varieties like Japan English, Singapore English and so on. So that we can see
many misunderstanding over the use of English in Indonesia that is still so
strict in the form of features of the language. We are commonly find that many
English teachers in Indonesia will give a bad score based on their rubric assessment
in speaking performance for instance if the students have what we call “Medok”
or having  too Indonesia accent or do not
sounds like British or American pronunciation. Tomlinson in Renandya (2010, p.
609) has argued that, “The English we should test is the variety of English
which is appropriate and effective in the contexts in which the candidates are
likely to need to use English.” (Willy A. Renandya, 2016). Furthermore,
talking about the materials of English that is taught at school, Alsagof (2012)
stated that there are several ways to increase students’ awareness of English
varieties using appropriate materials. One is use pre-packaged teaching
materials that already include multiple varieties of English. CDs that
accompany textbooks, for example, may include different varieties of English.
We can adapt this suggestion in order to renew the way of our people think
about the concept of Britain and American English. In addition, the teacher
should not only teach and introduce the varieties of English but they should introduce
the cross culture understanding.

 Renandya also give a description of ELT that
Tomlinson and Masuhara conclude that the focus is almost exclusively on British
English and the language ‘taught’ is contemporary British middle-class standard
English. Burns and Hill (2013, p. 241) also review current global course books
and ask, “How far do speaking activities re?ect the changing nature of English
as a global language, and the fact that most interactions in English in the
world today are not between two NS”. They found the occasional non-native
speaker but concluded that, “their impact is minimal and the purpose is not for
exploration of communication between different speakers of English.”

what we need to restore here is that the understanding of Indonesian English
language teacher and students on the concept of EIL. We can do it by putting
them directly onto the real communication abroad. Simply we can give them any
more education about what is EIL and what happened in the real world of the
English users through internet or text book. Better if there are some teachers and
students exchange between Indonesia and teachers and students from English
speaking country. Like Sercu said that Foreign language teacher should be
familiar with foreign cultures associated with foreign language they teach and
contacts they have with these culture should be varied and frequent (Lies Sercu, 2005). Teachers appear to
be willing to inter-culturalize foreign language education (Lies Sercu, 2005). The
interconnectedness between cultural globalization, identity formation, and
English language education has started getting the attention it truly deserves
from EIL educator’s (Lubna Alsagoff, 2012)

            However, if we do that we may assume
that after the teachers and students experience the English speaking country life
and learn how the education there, they might be influence on how the culture and
lifestyle in English speaking country besides learning the English. The teachers’
and students’ culture, identity, way of thinking will be influence or even be
changed. Sarah Hopskin stated that cultural identity is constantly changing and
leaking at the boundaries, it is not static or neatly packaged, and identity is
also dynamic, ever-changing and fluid over time and space. We may see that English
learner may become or have multiple identity where multiple identities also
suggest the notion of hybridity in their identity formation, hybridity was
obtained on the basis of some cores where the new identities are construed
within the negotiation and awareness of change and the sense of resistance (Ha, 2008).

stated by Barry, hybridity happens when individual is colonized both mentally
and physically by dominant culture creating a condition of in betweenes the
original identity and the dominant.  In
order to be hybrid, a person usually also done such a mimicry theory (Barry, 2002).  Mimicry emerges as a representation of
difference that is itself a process of disavowal. Mimicry is, thus a sign of
double articulation, a complex strategy of reform, regulation and discipline” (Bhaba, 1992). In order to analyze
the further about hybridity and cultural ambivalence, Bhaba shared his theory a
third space that is where the meeting of two identities becoming
ambivalence.  Furthermore, Bhaba said
that a hybrid is not only doubled voice or double accent but also a double
language. This is what usually happens to a person who goes abroad. As I said
it is better for a teachers as well as the students to know how abroad
condition really is, but the notion of hybridity may come to them. We are
generally see how students hybrid shows their identity, they act like a western
one, their life style, their speaking. Some will speak English well, but some
of the students who like English will use a code switching from Indonesian and
English or vice versa to be cooler.

order to keep our students from the bad side of learning English, that is lost
their identity and culture, it is better to support our students with some
moral values and a better understanding to choose what is good and bad to them.
They should believe that their culture is not a traditional culture that is
needed to be demolished.  In the course
of materials of teaching English, we can add some local wisdom onto the
materials used in the textbook in order to avoid the loss of cultural identity
of the students.

conclusion, in teaching English as an International Language, every teacher
must realize that English is not emphasis only in British and American style
but there are many emergence of Worlds Englishes that are needed to be taught
to the students and needed to be introduced to the students. As a teacher of
English, the teacher should experience the real world especially in the western
and English speaking country. There, the teacher will likely to learn the
language as well as the culture. Then as the speakers of English we can respect
the differences and understand that every speaker of English in this world has
their own tradition and culture that we should understood. The teachers and
students in Indonesia must be realized that the concept of English language is
to communicate, to have a connection to other world through language.


I'm Dora!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Click here