Thebroader concept of English that has become the international language is alsoinfluence the development of English language teaching in Indonesia. There aresome parts of English language teaching in Indonesia that still need to beexplored and improved in order to support the aim of using the language, tocommunicate as well as respect the intercultural differences of Englishspeakers around the world in the real context of communication. The issue of globalization has also forced somany people around the world as well as Indonesia to master English as thelingua franca for the sake of their business, marketing, economy and education.The emergence of advanced information technologies is also one of the reasonwhy people learn English as the means of their communication. Kachrudefined the spread of English from the geographic and historical spread asthree circles which is so helpful. Furthermore, in the most frequently citedversion of the model (Kachru, 1992). In the model, it istold that the inner circle refers to the traditional bases of English: the UK,USA, Ireland, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
The outer (or extended)circle refers to the earlier spread of English in non-native settings, wherethe language has become a part of the country’s important institutions, and it plays an important second language’ role in a multilingual setting:Moreover, it includes Indonesia’s neighbors Singapore and Malaysia, India, andover fifty other territories. The expanding or extending circle refers to nations which recognize the importance of English as an international language,but which were not colonized by the countries of the inner circle, and whichhave not given English any special official status. In these countries, Englishis taught as a foreign language. Indonesia belongs to this group, which alsoincludes China, Japan, Greece and Poland (Kachru, 1992).InIndonesia English has been taught from the very early age of the students.There are so many education sponsor offer English for young learner lesson. Inthe compulsory matter English should be learn formally since Junior highschool. English language teaching curriculum in Indonesia has change over timeto time in order to find the most appropriate method in teaching English.
Whatis happened is on the same path with what Renandya propose that English is nowtaught at increasingly younger age levels. These changes naturally have hugeimplications for teaching. Teachers need to be trained and re- trained to meet thechanging language learning needs of their students; new teaching methodologywill need to be used to cater for the diverse pro?ciency levels of the studentsand new ways of assessing learning outcomes will also need to be devised. Insome countries (e.g., Malaysia and Vietnam), the training or retraining ofEnglish teachers also included helping teachers improve their languagepro?ciency. In these countries, teachers are expected to possess an advancedlevel of pro?ciency in the English language (e.g.
, C1 or C2 on the CommonEuropean Framework of Reference) (Willy A. Renandya, 2016) The improvement of English languageteaching in Indonesia is actually been done by the government, we can see itfrom the changes of English language curriculum over time to time. The 1975 curriculum specified that English should betaught with the audio-lingual approach with an emphasis on the teaching oflinguistic patterns through habit-formation drills (Ministry of Education andCulture, 1975a, 1975b). As such, the syllabus was created mainly on the basisof structure.
What emerged then was thatmost of the teacher taught their students especially in language structure. Itmight be because the requirement of the final examination which was emphasis ongrammar mastery. Then, curriculum 2006 usedthe text- based approach. It told the teachers must choose and use genre basedtexts, personal text, interpersonal text, and short functional text whichcontain of the real life situation. This implies a belief in language as asystem but a system of meanings rather than forms. It undertakes that learninga language involves of learning how to mean.In the recent curriculumnamed curriculum 2013, we still use text-based model as our instructional model.The learning procedure is aimed to help students to understand and producevarious kinds of texts.
What is meant by text here is any kind of communicationforms which is meaningful or has meaning.Text – based languagelearning is based on the theory ofcommunicative competence by Celce-Murcia, Dornyei and Thurrel (1995) which isin accordance with theory that language is communication , not only a set ofrules consisting of action competence (including listening, speaking, reading and writing),discourse competence, linguistic competence, sociocultural competence andstrategic competence (S.Thurrell, 1995).What is stated in curriculum2013 is actually support the EIL concept that the purpose of learning alanguage is to be able to communicate in the real context. Language iscommunication. EIL, as a paradigm, recognizes theinternational functions of English and its use in a variety of cultural andeconomic arenas by speakers of English from diverse lingua-cultural backgroundswho do not speak each other’s mother tongues (Marlina, 2014). Moreover, Sharifian(2009) explains that the focus in the EIL paradigm is on the communicationrather than on the speakers’ nationality, skin color, and so on (Sharifian, 2009). However, inIndonesia most of the teachers still focus on English as a part of British andAmerican varieties.
In his presentation, it stated that British and Americanvarieties of English still dominate the English language teaching. This is alsohappen in Indonesia where most of the English teachers do not haveunderstanding about the broader notion of English native speaker concept todaythat it is not only British and American only but also including many Englishvarieties like Japan English, Singapore English and so on. So that we can seemany misunderstanding over the use of English in Indonesia that is still sostrict in the form of features of the language. We are commonly find that manyEnglish teachers in Indonesia will give a bad score based on their rubric assessmentin speaking performance for instance if the students have what we call “Medok”or having too Indonesia accent or do notsounds like British or American pronunciation. Tomlinson in Renandya (2010, p.609) has argued that, “The English we should test is the variety of Englishwhich is appropriate and effective in the contexts in which the candidates arelikely to need to use English.” (Willy A.
Renandya, 2016). Furthermore,talking about the materials of English that is taught at school, Alsagof (2012)stated that there are several ways to increase students’ awareness of Englishvarieties using appropriate materials. One is use pre-packaged teachingmaterials that already include multiple varieties of English. CDs thataccompany textbooks, for example, may include different varieties of English.We can adapt this suggestion in order to renew the way of our people thinkabout the concept of Britain and American English.
In addition, the teachershould not only teach and introduce the varieties of English but they should introducethe cross culture understanding. Renandya also give a description of ELT thatTomlinson and Masuhara conclude that the focus is almost exclusively on BritishEnglish and the language ‘taught’ is contemporary British middle-class standardEnglish. Burns and Hill (2013, p. 241) also review current global course booksand ask, “How far do speaking activities re?ect the changing nature of Englishas a global language, and the fact that most interactions in English in theworld today are not between two NS”. They found the occasional non-nativespeaker but concluded that, “their impact is minimal and the purpose is not forexploration of communication between different speakers of English.”So,what we need to restore here is that the understanding of Indonesian Englishlanguage teacher and students on the concept of EIL. We can do it by puttingthem directly onto the real communication abroad.
Simply we can give them anymore education about what is EIL and what happened in the real world of theEnglish users through internet or text book. Better if there are some teachers andstudents exchange between Indonesia and teachers and students from Englishspeaking country. Like Sercu said that Foreign language teacher should befamiliar with foreign cultures associated with foreign language they teach andcontacts they have with these culture should be varied and frequent (Lies Sercu, 2005). Teachers appear tobe willing to inter-culturalize foreign language education (Lies Sercu, 2005). Theinterconnectedness between cultural globalization, identity formation, andEnglish language education has started getting the attention it truly deservesfrom EIL educator’s (Lubna Alsagoff, 2012) However, if we do that we may assumethat after the teachers and students experience the English speaking country lifeand learn how the education there, they might be influence on how the culture andlifestyle in English speaking country besides learning the English. The teachers’and students’ culture, identity, way of thinking will be influence or even bechanged.
Sarah Hopskin stated that cultural identity is constantly changing andleaking at the boundaries, it is not static or neatly packaged, and identity isalso dynamic, ever-changing and fluid over time and space. We may see that Englishlearner may become or have multiple identity where multiple identities alsosuggest the notion of hybridity in their identity formation, hybridity wasobtained on the basis of some cores where the new identities are construedwithin the negotiation and awareness of change and the sense of resistance (Ha, 2008). Asstated by Barry, hybridity happens when individual is colonized both mentallyand physically by dominant culture creating a condition of in betweenes theoriginal identity and the dominant.
Inorder to be hybrid, a person usually also done such a mimicry theory (Barry, 2002). Mimicry emerges as a representation ofdifference that is itself a process of disavowal. Mimicry is, thus a sign ofdouble articulation, a complex strategy of reform, regulation and discipline” (Bhaba, 1992). In order to analyzethe further about hybridity and cultural ambivalence, Bhaba shared his theory athird space that is where the meeting of two identities becomingambivalence.
Furthermore, Bhaba saidthat a hybrid is not only doubled voice or double accent but also a doublelanguage. This is what usually happens to a person who goes abroad. As I saidit is better for a teachers as well as the students to know how abroadcondition really is, but the notion of hybridity may come to them.
We aregenerally see how students hybrid shows their identity, they act like a westernone, their life style, their speaking. Some will speak English well, but someof the students who like English will use a code switching from Indonesian andEnglish or vice versa to be cooler. Inorder to keep our students from the bad side of learning English, that is losttheir identity and culture, it is better to support our students with somemoral values and a better understanding to choose what is good and bad to them.They should believe that their culture is not a traditional culture that isneeded to be demolished.
In the courseof materials of teaching English, we can add some local wisdom onto thematerials used in the textbook in order to avoid the loss of cultural identityof the students. Inconclusion, in teaching English as an International Language, every teachermust realize that English is not emphasis only in British and American stylebut there are many emergence of Worlds Englishes that are needed to be taughtto the students and needed to be introduced to the students. As a teacher ofEnglish, the teacher should experience the real world especially in the westernand English speaking country. There, the teacher will likely to learn thelanguage as well as the culture. Then as the speakers of English we can respectthe differences and understand that every speaker of English in this world hastheir own tradition and culture that we should understood.
The teachers andstudents in Indonesia must be realized that the concept of English language isto communicate, to have a connection to other world through language.