The impact of Nano-technology on
recent advances in shapeless
refractories: A review   Heidar Ali* 1Department of Materials
Science, UNSW University, Australia *Corresponding Author, Tel: +98 9133330848, E-mail address:
[email protected]      


In recent years, the use of Nano-technology
(Nano-particles, Nano-material and Nano-additives) has attracted attention of
scholars, engineers, and scientists in all scientific fields such as chemistry,
medicine, material, agriculture, electric, and etc. The use of Nano-technology
has also become widespread in the refractories products (which mainly used by
various industries such
as steel, casting, cement, glass, and etc.). So, some researchers
have examined the effect of using different types and contents of
Nano-materials (oxides and non-oxides) on the properties of shaped (bricks) and
un-shaped (shapeless) refractories
products and they have attained very interesting results.  One of the most consumable refractory goods in different industries is shapeless refractories, which has been widely used because of their
great advantages to the other refractories goods (bricks). Hence, in this research, recent progresses in shapeless refractories by Nano-technology are mentioned. This article can be used as a complete reference and guidance for Scientific’s, students and
artisans   for easy access to experimental research results of the
impact of Nano-technology on shapeless refractories.

 Keywords: Nano-technology, Nano
particles, Refractory, shapeless

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  1.    Introduction:

1.2. Nanotechnology (Introduction):

Nano-technology phrase originating from two words consist of the Greek numerical prefix nano referring to
a billionth and the technology word
1-2. As an outcome, Nano-technology or Nano-scaled technology is
commonly considered to be at a size under 100 nm (a Nano-meter is 10-9 m)
1-2.   2.      Refractories: 2.1. Introduction:
  According to the ASTM C 71, the refractories are a “non-metallic
materials having those physical and chemical properties that lead to them
applicable for structures or as components of systems that are exposed to
environments above 538°C 11, 16. Also,
some references experessed that refractories non-metallic and in-organic   material
that can withstand high temperature without changing in their properties (such as physical and chemical)
or when stay in contact with molten slag, metal and gases 11-13, 16-20.
As well as, according to the operating situation, they should to have high thermal shock resistant, be chemically inert, and  have defined
ranges of thermal conductivity
and thermal expansion coefficient 11- 21, 22. It is obvious that refractories have an
important role in glassmaking, metallurgical, and ceramic crafts, where they are generated into a variety of shapes to line the inside of furnaces or kilns or other tools for producing  the materials at high temperatures
23-25. Some of the technological and scientific
inventions and advances would not have been possible without refractory materials. Producing 1Kg
of any metal without utilize
of refractory is almost fully impracticable 26-29.The background of using refractory materials dates back to as mankind begin to progress metallurgical procedure. The
first refractor raw material was clay. Up to the nineteenth century, refractory goods were made of natural ores, such as magnesite, dolomite stones and
was at the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of nineteenth century
that the basis of modern metal beneficiation, the development of Portland
cement and of modern glass processes started to inflict higher requirements to the refractory
industry 30-34. The main
materials used in the
producing of refractories are
based to Fig.1 34-36. In recent years, with the changing trends in
steelmaking, the high performing shaped refractories are on an increasing request. 


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