The manufacture of most industrial materials hassome form of impact on the environment. Research is being conducted to reduce thisimpact and promote sustainable development.
Onesuch industrial material which has a substantial effect on the environment,specifically on the carbon levels in the atmosphere is the vastly manufacturedand consumed raw material: cement.Currently, the cement industry accounts for almost5% 1 of the global CO2 production.Over the recent years, cement production has witnessed an exponential increasein developing countries to meet the needs of a rapidly urbanizing civilization2 and the carbon levels in the environment have seen a proportional increase.If nothing is done to control them, this ubiquitous industry will account fornearly 33% of the global carbon levels by 2050. 3This is indeed a cause forworry, as CO2 is a greenhouse gas which when present in largequantities in the atmosphere can contribute to dangerous phenomena like globalwarming.
4 In such a situation, it is the need of the hour to findeconomically viable methods to help propagate a low CO2 emittingcement industry. It has been estimated thatfossil fuel combustions account for a mere 30% 5 of the amount of CO2 generatedduring the production of cement whereas the calcination of the limestoneaccounts for almost 60% of the total carbon emitted.6 This is both good aswell as bad news. The carbon emissions cannot be controlled in the cementindustry by simply increasing the energy efficiency; the problem must betackled at the very base itself, by adjusting or changing the constituents ofthe cement, while keeping in mind the economic feasibility of the cement. This paper gives an overview of the various strategies that thegovernment as well as the cement industry have considered to lessen the amountof carbon released from the cement production process.
The rest of the paper isorganized as follows: The next section reviews the industrial plans and the subsequentsection focuses on the governmental policies. After that, the conclusions are discussedand suggestions are made for the areas that merit further research