The definition of Homeostasis is the ability of the body orcell to seek and maintain a condition of equilibrium within its internalenvironment when dealing with external changes (“Homeostasis” 2016). In humans,homeostasis happens when the body regulates body temperature in an effort to maintaininternal temperature.

During exercise the body needs to maintain a constant supplyof oxygen to your cells to support your working muscles, which may need 12 to25 times more oxygen than they need when latent (Mastrangelo 2013). Exerciseincreases the use of energy by your muscles, which activates a series of reactionsto create new energy to keep exercising and maintain homeostasis. The Harderyou exercise, the more energy is used, resulting in the body increasingbreathing rate more to maintain adequate energy levels for balance (Sherwood2017). The Heart’s main function is to pump blood throughout the body, and isable to regulate oxygen levels throughout the body, as it moves through thebody it supplies oxygen from the lungs to the cells. When the blood returns tothe heart it releases carbon dioxide for the lungs to exhale (Reichhold 2014). Theseprocedures prevent homeostatic imbalance when active (Suleman 2015).

 Negativefeedback occurs when something changes in the body and requires three generalsteps. First, through a stimulus the receptor detects changes in the environment.Next, the receptor sends information to the control centre and lastly, if thecontrol centre responds it sends a signal to the effector (Seeley 2006). Tomaintain balance, your breathing rate must continue to stay at an elevatedlevel so your lungs can expel the excess carbon dioxide being produced by themuscle cells during exercise. Once you stop exercising and the cells return tonormal energy needs, less carbon dioxide is created, allowing your breathingrate to return to normal (Sherwood 2017).

 My hypothesisis that exercise will increase perspiration levels and increase heart andbreathing rates, and will reduce after a two-minute resting break while thebody returns to homeostatic conditions. Method and Materials  The experiment was carried out by a volunteer and anobserver to record the results. The volunteer first completed a pre-exercisescreening questionnaire to detect any health concerns (see Appendix). The questionnaire indicated that there were no healthconcerns and the volunteer could safely proceed with the experiment. Thevolunteer was female, age 19 with above average fitness ability. The experimentwas completed in a room inside a gym, with no sunlight to affect perspirationlevels, the warmer temperature could affect the levels.

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The volunteer’sexercise of choice was to complete continuous jumping jacks. The materials usedin the experiment comprised of a stopwatch (mobile phone application) to recordthe time of the exercise and a pen and paper to record the final results. Beforethe exercise commenced the first results were recorded. The exercise wasrepeated eight times at two minute intervals and rates were recorded forfifteen seconds. The outcomes of heart and breathing rates were multiplied byfour to reach the results per minute. The volunteer rested for two minutes afterthe exercise was completed and results were measured once again to detect theeffect that exercise has on homeostatic conditions in the body.  The volunteer’s heart rate was measured by checking thepulse over the carotid artery.

The breathing rate was measured by observing therise and fall of the volunteer’s chest and there was visible sweat on thevolunteer’s body to record perspiration.      Results  Table 1. Effects ofexercise over eight minutes on heart rate, breathing rate and perspiration level.  Time (min) Heart Rate (beats/min) Breathing Rate (breaths/min) Perspiration Level (1-5) 0   54   20   1 2   109   27   1 4   137   34   2 6   148   45   2 8   161   54   3 2 Minute Resting Time 10   93   31   2  The heart and breathing rate increased progressively andperspiration level increased at about 4 minutes as shown in Table 1.  ‘Figure 1 displaysthe heart rate rising throughout the eight minutes of exercise followed by adecrease after the two minutes of rest. The results demonstrate that during thefirst two minutes of exercise the heart rate increased the most.

Figure 1. Heart rateduring eight minutes of exercise followed by two minutes of rest.After 4 minutes of exercise the breathing rate increased themost followed by a swift reduction after the two-minute rest period as shown inFigure 2.   Figure 2. Breathingrate during eight minutes of exercise followed by two minutes of rest.  After four minutes of exercise the perspiration levelincreased, as shown in Figure 3, andthen declined after the two-minute resting time.  Figure 3. Perspirationlevel during eight minutes of exercise followed by two minutes of rest.

       Discussion During a bout of exercise, factors such as the exerciseintensity and duration interact to produce the overall homeostatic stress or “trainingload” of the session (Mann 2014).  During exercise the heart rate significantly increases, asshown in Figure 1.   The heart rate, breathing rate and perspiration levelsincreased during exercise as hypothesized, demonstrating homeostasis. Perspirationlevels increased over the eight minutes at a steady rate compared to the heartrate and breathing rate which increased swiftly (see Figures 1, 2 and 3).  Conclusion  The purpose of the research was to investigate howhomeostasis is maintained within the body in the context of heart rate,breathing rate and perspiration levels during exercise.

The breathing rate ofthe subject increased in order to raise levels of oxygen and expel more carbondioxide. Similarly, the heart rate increases due to the higher demand of oxygenfrom muscles. Whilst exercise is being conducted, the body temperatureincreases, this is why perspiration increases, cooling the body throughevaporation. This is the result of exercise and the body maintaininghomeostasis. The results mirror the hypothesis, exercise increased the heartrate, breathing rate and perspiration levels and decrease during the restingperiod as the organs throughout the body begin to stabilize.