The American Revolution took place between the years 1775 and 1783, and was the war for American independence from the fist of British rule. The war for independence began as tensions began to rise between the citizens of Britain’s thirteen colonies and the crown of Britain which was represented by the colonial government. Skirmishes between the militias of the patriot ragtag army and the well-trained soldiers of the British crown soon erupted across the east coast in which began the American war for independence. The Revolutionary War was sparked by various causes. One of the first events that led to the war was the spawn of the French and Indian War. The war was fought as a continuation of a series of battles and skirmishes between the French and British in North America. During the first two years of the war, the French soldiers and their Indian allies, won battle after battle against the crown. One such battle was when the British soldiers under General Braddock attempted to capture Fort Duquesne, where the British were forced back by the encamped French and Indian soldiers. As General Braddock was on the back foot, a smaller force of French and Indian soldiers defeated Braddock and his battalion in the summer of 1755. One of the more famous causes of America’s revolt was the British inclination to apply more taxes onto the colonies. The act was carried out to increase revenue gained from the colonies, however the colonies saw it as an attack on their freedoms. A tax that was properly named the American Revenue Act became quickly known by the Americans as the Sugar Act on the grounds of one of its major components being a raise on the sugar tariff. As well as the other features of the act, it was combined with attempts to more effectively enforce existing tariffs. In 1765, Americans began to feel the fire of revolution licking their heels. The Sons of Liberty were the first ideal resistance group shrouded in secrecy. The Sons of Liberty were also the group to first carry out a true act of revolution-The Boston Tea Party. The Boston Tea Party was an event where the aforementioned Sons of Liberty, dumped multiple barrels of British tea into the Boston Harbor. As a result of the act, the British colonial government created what would be nicknamed “The Intolerable Acts”. The Intolerable Acts, also called the Coercive Acts, were four harsh measures enacted by the British government in retaliation of the colonies’ defiance of the crown. The acts were created as a way to further assert authority over the colonies in America, and the main force of the acts. In the American colonies, the tensions that had been brewing grew even more intensified. Whereas there was a small group of the Sons of Liberty, chapters of the secret organization formed all over the thirteen colonies. They were especially prominent in Virginia, New England, and the Carolinas. The seething catalyst for the inevitable Revolutionary War was the Sons of Liberty, and they’re the main reason why the war erupted in Massachusetts. War broke out on April 19th, 1775 at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. When the news of first blood hurried along the coast, thousands of volunteers converged onto Cambridge, Mass. The first day of the war sprung what would become the Continental Army. During the eve of the war in Lexington and Concord was the famous event known as “the shot heard around the world”. Whereas it is unknown which side fired the initiating shot, British volleys were fired and the militiamen were commanded to disperse, being heavily outnumbered. When the dust had settled, eight militiamen were killed and nine were wounded, and yet only one British redcoat was wounded. The British soldiers then marched for Concord, where they believed their arms had been confiscated and hidden. However, when they arrived they had been relocated, and so the British decided to burn what little they had found. The hundreds of militiamen guarding Concord’s high ground believed the entire town would be burnt to cinders, and in turn rushed down the hill to Concord’s north bridge, of which was defended by a British regiment. This time, the British retreated as the colonists returned fire. The colonists did not show innate skill in marksmanship, however they stood up to one of the most powerful and well-trained militaries in the world. The news of rebellion quickly spread all over the colonies and eventually to London, and in the summer following the battles at Lexington and Concord-the full-scale American war for independence had begun. Following the British victory at the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Second Continental Congress had prepared to meet in July of 1775 in Philadelphia. On July 4, which would later be celebrated as Independence Day, the Continental Congress voted to pass the Declaration of Independence, officially announcing their separation from the British crown in England. In the same month, in an attempt to completely fell the rebellion in the aftermath of the declaration, the British army was routed to New York with 34,000 troops. In August, General Howe collided with the Continental Army on Long Island, and General Washington was forced to evacuate his troops from New York by September to avoid anymore bloodshed. After pushed across the Delaware River, General Washington and his battalion returned fire with a surprise attack in Trenton, New Jersey, on Christmas night and won yet another battle at Princeton, which had in turn revived the rebel’s hopes for victory against the tactical force of the British army. In 1777, the British army had concluded that a new form of attack must be used to crush the rebellion. The method of attack involved using two main prongs of attack, in this case focused upon New England in hopes of separating it from the rest of the colonies as the rebellion gained much support from those living here. As General Howe’s soldiers marched through New England, General Burgoyne’s army marched south from Canada intending to meet Howe along the Hudson River. General Burgoyne proved to be a talented commander as he and his army dealt a devastating blow the the American army when retaking Fort Ticonderoga in July. As Burgoyne celebrated his victory, Howe continued south to confront General Washington and his army near Chesapeake Bay. The British won the battle at Brandywine Creek as they pushed through Philadelphia, and as they entered the city Washington planned a rebound onto the enemy to strike Germantown in early October before winter came in full force so that he would easily be able to retreat to the army’s winter quarters in Valley Forge.Howe’s decision to change the position of his army to capture more land left Burgoyne’s army exposed near Saratoga, New York. The British army suffered this move in September as an American army under General Gates defeated them at Freeman’s Farm in what would become known as the First Battle of Saratoga, after being defeated once more in October at Bemis Heights at the Second Battle of Saratoga. In the same month, General Burgoyne surrendered his forces to General Gates in what would become the turning point of the American Revolution. The war which began as skirmishes between Britain and its colonies, was soon hurdling to become a world war. During the winter at Valley Forge, General Washington’s troops gained world-class military training from Prussian military officer Baron Friedrich von Steuben and French aristocrat Marquis de Lafayette. In June of 1778, a British force under Sir Henry Clinton, the new supreme commander, attempted to relocate from Philadelphia to New York. As they retreated, Washington’s newly trained army routed them near Monmouth, New Jersey. The newly trained army against the supreme war-mind of Clinton resulted in the battle ending in a decisive draw. However, Clinton was able to get a majority of his army and his highly valued supplies into the safety of New York. In the following July, a French naval fleet commanded by the Comte d’Estaing arrived just off the Atlantic Coast and prepared to go to battle with the rivaled British Navy, as an attack converged onto the British in Newport, Rhode Island. Though surrounded by both the French and American armies, the attack ultimately failed causing the war to become a stalemate in the northern colonies. In the aftermath, the American army suffered multiple setbacks including the defection of General Arnold and the various mutinies within the Patriot forces.Though the north was in stalemate, the British had been mobilizing across the southern colonies. The British force had captured Charleston in South Carolina and Georgia. Under yet another renowned military leader, Lord Cornwallis, mobilized his troops and began an offensive against General Gates’ troops throughout the colonies focused upon Camden near Philadelphia. Though even after a victory at King’s Mountain, Gates was replaced by General Green as American commander. Following the promotion of Commander Green, General Morgan promptly scored a victory over the British battalion led by General Tarleton at Cowpens, South Carolina, in January of 1781.As the year drew closer to fall, Commander Green had managed to force Lord Cornwallis and his armies to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula. Supported by a large French army commanded by General Rochambeau, Washington began his final push onto Yorktown with 14,000 Americans and 36 heavily armed French warships, who intended to prevent any British retreat. Surrounded and largely outnumbered, Cornwallis decided to surrender his army to Washington on October 19th. Cornwallis, claiming illness, sent his deputy to surrender the sword, as the blade was handed to General Washington, he nodded to his own deputy, Benjamin Lincoln, who accepted the sword instead.Though a major battle was won in Yorktown, the war was not yet over. British troops were still stationed all around the colonies, namely in Charleston, and New York (which housed the powerful majority of the British force). Neither side decided to take action against either army, and over the next two years, British troops began their withdrawal from the newly independent country. British and American negotiators met in Paris to sign preliminary peace terms that officially recognized the independence of the newly formed United States of America in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, the British signed treaties with both Spain and France, which had finally, after eight grueling years, brought the Revolutionary War to close, and the new age of the United States of America had officially begun.


I'm Dora!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Click here