The importance of kingdom Protista as food sources.


Protists or Protista
has its own unique characteristics that help them to become more needed not
just for humans but for other organisms too. In Protista, contain of two
classes which are algae and protozoa. Under algae there are two phylum which
are paeophyta and chlorophyta and on the other hands protozoa have four phylum
which are rhizopoda, apicomplexa, ciliophora and euglenophyta respectively (Corliss,
1984). For information, Protista can serve as food sources for human and
animals especially aquatic animals. There are many kinds of food that has been
produced using protists such as calcium carbonate for plankton and bread for
human. World widely plankton are being used directly as food sources. The usage
of photosynthetic protists as engenderers for supplymation to other living


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dinoflagellates, zooxanthellae are produced endosymbiontly in many marine
invertebrates.( Rowan et al ,1991).
Most zooxanthellae are found in dinoflagellates because their genus cannot be
easily distinguish between their Symbiodinium. (Rowan
et al, 1992). As we go deep into
protists, photosynthetic dinoflagellates named zooxanthellae apply sunlight to make
their own inorganic carbon. To gain
metabolic energy towards animal’s host, zooxanthellae need to experience
translocation of photosynthate. (Dubinsky et
al, 2011). Typically, zooxanthellae live between hosts-derived membrane
cell undergo comparable rate in culture of photosynthesis. (Wernegreen et al, 2012). Five
tridacnid clams and nine corals were identified to be look-alike with the
pigments of the dinoflagellate which is called Amphidinium (Jeffrey et al, 1968).

1. Zooxanthellae using 100x

These protists give
nutrients for the coral polyps that protect them, giving the corals ability to
secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton, in symbiotic
interaction (Stanley et al, 2001). Protists were rich in forefended
environment and the compounds needed for photosynthesis which provided by
corals. Nutrient-poor environments were predominant over this type of symbiotic
relationship. The dinoflagellate symbionts will vanished due to loosing algal
pigments in operation called coral bleaching. The colonies that were uncovered
to full sunlight has low-pigment content of zooxanthelle rather than has low
group of zooxanthellae. (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 1989).

The data has been shown
that all corals through all depth are bleaching due to change in light and
temperature with various kinds of colour which are white, tan, or mottled to
the human eye. (Fitt et al, 2000). Experimental
income show that a raise in temperature significantly affect the total number
of zooxanthellae by reducing it per polyp. (Lesser
et al, 1990).  This explicates why reef-building corals do
not reside in waters deeper than 20 meters: deficient light reaches those
depths for dinoflagellates to photosynthesize. There are two types of bleach
colony of zooxanthellae that were found which are normal pigment content of
zooxanthellae and high densities of lowpigment zooxanthellae in a colony.
(Szmant, A., & Gassman, N. J., 1990).
Photosynthesis, nitrogen and phosphate help zooxanthellae to develop more carbohydrates
and oxygen. Some sciences expert also explain that photosynthesis fasten the
output of calcium carbonate for the coral’s skeleton (Delbeek, 1987)

Bleached coral were
unable to undergo gametogenesis because their pigment along reproductive
season, while un-pigmented or recovered coral were able to follow a normal
gametogenic cycle. (Szmant, A.,
& Gassman, N. J., 1990). Zooxanthellae aremfound mostly at corals,
jellyfishes (Tridacna gigas, T. squamosa, T. crocea, Hippopus hippopus, H.
porcellanus and Corculum cardissa) and sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) because they
need symbionts such as dinoflagellates to survive (Savage et al,  2002). As a result,
research shows that a clam may harbours 1 or more genotypically distinct
zooxanthellae, with 1 or more taxa which has dominant ability occurring at a
time. (Carlos et al, 2000). This may
increase the production of zooxanthellae at the same time will give mutualistic
interaction towards marine living things such as plankton to give food sources.


Other than
Zooxanthellae, Chlorella sp. also can act as food for other organism. It has the
highest amount of B12 for important healthy nerves and tissues especially for
people who likes to eat vegetables. It also have high in protein that able them
to stimulate immune syste and lastly help human to protect against deadly
allergic reaction.

2. Chlorella under 10x


Chlorella is a
eukaryotic cell that has strain NC64A, and its viruses which are eleven of them
all contain significant levels of 5-methyldeoxycytidine (Van Etten et al, 1985). The example of Chorella
viruses are Chlorellastrains NC64A and Pbi, Micromonas pusilla and
Chrysochromulina spp. (CHEN et al, 1996).
There are many types of Chlorella found on earth such as Chlorella
autotrophica, Chlorella colonials, Chlorella lewinii Chlorella minutissima,
Chlorella pituita, Chlorella pulchelloides, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Chlorella
rotunda, Chlorella singularis, Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella variabilis,
Chlorella volutis and Chlorella vulgaris.

Chlorella grew in a
specific condition which are surrounded by various light intensities based on
the studies on the algae and other microorganisms rates of metabolic processes
have been expressed variously in terms of unit ceil volume, unit dry weight;
unit cell number, unit cell nitrogen, or unit chlorophyll. (Myers & J., 1946).
The suitable condition for the growth of Chlorellas are temperature must be
around 36°C and the optimal pH 6.0~7.0. (Endo
et al, 1974). On the other hands glucose, galactose, acetic acid, ethanol,
acetaldehyde and pyruvic acid may provide as the carbon source to support the
growth under both moody and bright conditions. (Endo
et al, 1974).

Based on our knowledge,
protists has their cell wall structure which is chitin but as we go deeply into
protists their cell wall also contain different types of nutrients. The cell
wall of Chlorella compromise of two distinct phases which are microfibrillar
implant in the matrix (Northcote et al, 1958).
It also have highly quantity of protein and contains a largely amount of
vitamins and minerals, pigments, fatty acids, and growth factor. (Fan et al. 2014). Based on other respond,
all species of Chlorella contain the monosaccharide glucosamine as the main
constituent of the rigid cell wall (NEMcovA et
al, 2000).


Studies shows that the
intake of Chlorella resulted in detectable reductions in body fat percentage,
serum total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels. (Mizoguchi et al, 2008). It also promote healing
and nonspecially enhance the immune system. (Merchant
et al, 2001). The cholesterol level
of blood of hypercholesterolemic patients also can be reduced by the consummation
of Chlorella. (Kwak, 2012)


In conclusion, kingdom
Protista is important in producing a lot of food sources. A lot of other food
sources also has been produced by the existence of Protista such as seaweed as
known as brown algae. According to University of Cincinnati Clermont College,
seaweed has highly amount of iodine for a proper function of thyroid gland. Nori
or seaweed is the most nutritious form because it contain protein up to 30
percent to 50 percent base on The Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations. In particular aspect, zooxanthellae and chlorella are not excluded
because they are example of protists. Zoxanthellae are an important food for
aquatic animals for example fishes and planktons as they contain high amount of
carbohydrates and oxygen. Chlorella also important for reducing our number of
patients globally because each country’s government has been introduced this medicine
is beneficial especially to boost the immune system and help to fight infections.


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