The importance of kingdom Protista as food sources.

INTRODUCTIONProtists or Protistahas its own unique characteristics that help them to become more needed notjust for humans but for other organisms too. In Protista, contain of twoclasses which are algae and protozoa. Under algae there are two phylum whichare paeophyta and chlorophyta and on the other hands protozoa have four phylumwhich are rhizopoda, apicomplexa, ciliophora and euglenophyta respectively (Corliss,1984). For information, Protista can serve as food sources for human andanimals especially aquatic animals. There are many kinds of food that has beenproduced using protists such as calcium carbonate for plankton and bread forhuman.

World widely plankton are being used directly as food sources. The usageof photosynthetic protists as engenderers for supplymation to other livingthings.1.   Zooxanthellae Phototrophicdinoflagellates, zooxanthellae are produced endosymbiontly in many marineinvertebrates.( Rowan et al ,1991).

Most zooxanthellae are found in dinoflagellates because their genus cannot beeasily distinguish between their Symbiodinium. (Rowanet al, 1992). As we go deep intoprotists, photosynthetic dinoflagellates named zooxanthellae apply sunlight to maketheir own inorganic carbon. To gainmetabolic energy towards animal’s host, zooxanthellae need to experiencetranslocation of photosynthate. (Dubinsky etal, 2011). Typically, zooxanthellae live between hosts-derived membranecell undergo comparable rate in culture of photosynthesis. (Wernegreen et al, 2012).

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Fivetridacnid clams and nine corals were identified to be look-alike with thepigments of the dinoflagellate which is called Amphidinium (Jeffrey et al, 1968). 1. Zooxanthellae using 100xmicroscopeThese protists givenutrients for the coral polyps that protect them, giving the corals ability tosecrete a calcium carbonate skeleton, in symbioticinteraction (Stanley et al, 2001). Protists were rich in forefendedenvironment and the compounds needed for photosynthesis which provided bycorals. Nutrient-poor environments were predominant over this type of symbioticrelationship.

The dinoflagellate symbionts will vanished due to loosing algalpigments in operation called coral bleaching. The colonies that were uncoveredto full sunlight has low-pigment content of zooxanthelle rather than has lowgroup of zooxanthellae. (Hoegh-Guldberg et al.

, 1989).The data has been shownthat all corals through all depth are bleaching due to change in light andtemperature with various kinds of colour which are white, tan, or mottled tothe human eye. (Fitt et al, 2000). Experimentalincome show that a raise in temperature significantly affect the total numberof zooxanthellae by reducing it per polyp.

(Lesseret al, 1990).  This explicates why reef-building corals donot reside in waters deeper than 20 meters: deficient light reaches thosedepths for dinoflagellates to photosynthesize. There are two types of bleachcolony of zooxanthellae that were found which are normal pigment content ofzooxanthellae and high densities of lowpigment zooxanthellae in a colony.

(Szmant, A., & Gassman, N. J., 1990).Photosynthesis, nitrogen and phosphate help zooxanthellae to develop more carbohydratesand oxygen.

Some sciences expert also explain that photosynthesis fasten theoutput of calcium carbonate for the coral’s skeleton (Delbeek, 1987)Bleached coral wereunable to undergo gametogenesis because their pigment along reproductiveseason, while un-pigmented or recovered coral were able to follow a normalgametogenic cycle. (Szmant, A.,& Gassman, N. J., 1990). Zooxanthellae aremfound mostly at corals,jellyfishes (Tridacna gigas, T. squamosa, T. crocea, Hippopus hippopus, H.

porcellanus and Corculum cardissa) and sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) because theyneed symbionts such as dinoflagellates to survive (Savage et al,  2002). As a result,research shows that a clam may harbours 1 or more genotypically distinctzooxanthellae, with 1 or more taxa which has dominant ability occurring at atime. (Carlos et al, 2000).

This mayincrease the production of zooxanthellae at the same time will give mutualisticinteraction towards marine living things such as plankton to give food sources.2.     Chlorella Other thanZooxanthellae, Chlorella sp. also can act as food for other organism.

It has thehighest amount of B12 for important healthy nerves and tissues especially forpeople who likes to eat vegetables. It also have high in protein that able themto stimulate immune syste and lastly help human to protect against deadlyallergic reaction.2.

Chlorella under 10xmicroscope Chlorella is aeukaryotic cell that has strain NC64A, and its viruses which are eleven of themall contain significant levels of 5-methyldeoxycytidine (Van Etten et al, 1985). The example of Chorellaviruses are Chlorellastrains NC64A and Pbi, Micromonas pusilla andChrysochromulina spp. (CHEN et al, 1996).

There are many types of Chlorella found on earth such as Chlorellaautotrophica, Chlorella colonials, Chlorella lewinii Chlorella minutissima,Chlorella pituita, Chlorella pulchelloides, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Chlorellarotunda, Chlorella singularis, Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella variabilis,Chlorella volutis and Chlorella vulgaris. Chlorella grew in aspecific condition which are surrounded by various light intensities based onthe studies on the algae and other microorganisms rates of metabolic processeshave been expressed variously in terms of unit ceil volume, unit dry weight;unit cell number, unit cell nitrogen, or unit chlorophyll. (Myers & J., 1946).The suitable condition for the growth of Chlorellas are temperature must bearound 36°C and the optimal pH 6.0~7.0. (Endoet al, 1974).

On the other hands glucose, galactose, acetic acid, ethanol,acetaldehyde and pyruvic acid may provide as the carbon source to support thegrowth under both moody and bright conditions. (Endoet al, 1974). Based on our knowledge,protists has their cell wall structure which is chitin but as we go deeply intoprotists their cell wall also contain different types of nutrients. The cellwall of Chlorella compromise of two distinct phases which are microfibrillarimplant in the matrix (Northcote et al, 1958).

It also have highly quantity of protein and contains a largely amount ofvitamins and minerals, pigments, fatty acids, and growth factor. (Fan et al. 2014). Based on other respond,all species of Chlorella contain the monosaccharide glucosamine as the mainconstituent of the rigid cell wall (NEMcovA etal, 2000).

 Studies shows that theintake of Chlorella resulted in detectable reductions in body fat percentage,serum total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels. (Mizoguchi et al, 2008). It also promote healingand nonspecially enhance the immune system. (Merchantet al, 2001). The cholesterol levelof blood of hypercholesterolemic patients also can be reduced by the consummationof Chlorella. (Kwak, 2012)CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, kingdomProtista is important in producing a lot of food sources. A lot of other foodsources also has been produced by the existence of Protista such as seaweed asknown as brown algae. According to University of Cincinnati Clermont College,seaweed has highly amount of iodine for a proper function of thyroid gland.

Norior seaweed is the most nutritious form because it contain protein up to 30percent to 50 percent base on The Food and Agriculture Organization of theUnited Nations. In particular aspect, zooxanthellae and chlorella are not excludedbecause they are example of protists. Zoxanthellae are an important food foraquatic animals for example fishes and planktons as they contain high amount ofcarbohydrates and oxygen. Chlorella also important for reducing our number ofpatients globally because each country’s government has been introduced this medicineis beneficial especially to boost the immune system and help to fight infections.