The School of Management (Babatunde, 2015; Hardcastle et

The
idea of CSF originated from The Sloan School of Management (Babatunde, 2015; Hardcastle
et al., 2006; Jefferies, Gameson & Rowlinson, 2002). Reh (2017, p.1)
defines CSFs as “those variables or circumstances necessary to enable a
positive outcome for a business program or strategy”. The author explains that
CSFs are the fundamental components within a business that help to reach and
sustain successful targets. Another definition refers to CSF “as factors which
if addressed, significantly improve project implementation chances” (Moohebat,
Asemi, & Jazi, 2010, p. 100). Rowlinson (1999) concludes that the crucial
elements of success are necessary to help a firm ascertain the major factors
that should be addressed for the success of projects. Studies indicate that
CSFs’ influence on successful business programs or strategies is contextual
(Koppenjan, 2005). Koppenjan cautions that institutional practices should not
be transplanted from one jurisdiction to another because solutions that work in
one country may differ from another. In analysing CSFs of Enterprise Resources
Planning (ERP) systems in China, some scholars identified seven CSFs to include
“top management support, effective project management, business process
re-engineering, teamwork and composition, the sustainability of software and
hardware, education and training, and user involvement” (Elmeziane, Chuanmin & Elmeziane, 2011, p. 1).

Trafford
& Proctor (2006) in studying CSFs of PPP projects identified five
characteristics including good communication, effective planning, openness,
ethos and direction. In a related study of 10 assumed principal CSFs of PPP,
the only two found to be more influential to project success were the high
degree of commitment and joint vision between the contractor, client and
architect (Jacobson & Choi, 2008). Furthermore, a research in China found
eight CSFs as responsible for BOT project success. These include appropriate
project identification, favourable economic and political situation, attractive
financial package, acceptable toll/tariff levels, reasonable risk allocation,
suitable selection of subcontractors, management control and the transfer of
technology (Ismail, 2013).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

A
study of CSFs for PPP implementation of telecommunication in Lebanon showed
that the motivations to project success are trust, openness, and fairness
(Ismail, 2013; Jamali, 2004). Again, an Australian research into the CSFs of a
stadium using PPP’s Build Operate Own Transfer (BOOT) mode found that, of the
15 relevant success factors investigated, the most cardinal ones that aided the
project’s success included compatibility skills among the key parties and
technical innovation in overcoming project complexities, (Jefferries, Gameson &
Rowlinson, 2002). Ismail (2013) also outlined factors that could influence
project success to include environmental impact, financial capability, economic
and legal framework, feasibility study among others. Critical success factors
are very crucial to PPP infrastructural development.

Qiao
et al. (2001) have argued that project technical and financial feasibilities;
stakeholder’s acceptance; well organized public agency; transparency in the
procurement process; technology transfer; general knowledge about the existence
and workings of PPPs; presence of pro-investment culture among the population;
thorough and realistic cost/benefit assessment of projects; streamlined,
transparent and clear project appraisal policy are critical to the success of
PPP projects. In their
study, Cuttaree (2008) and Babatunde (2012, 5) identified sound legal and regulatory framework as factors that
positively affect PPP projects. The scholarly work of Hardcastle et al. (2006)
concluded that project success is linked to stable macroeconomic environment.

Competent personnel are required to effectively implement PPP projects
(Duffield, 2001). The involvement of government through the provision of
guarantee for instance was identified by Wang et al. (1999) as critical to
project delivery.