The scientific method is a mechanism by which scientists make observations by gathering data then they forming theories and testing hypothesis through the interpreting results. Psychologists use the scientific method to measure behaviour of patients and conduct their research moreover they make objective judgement in order to describe the behaviour. After observing certain events repeatedly, psychologists come up with theories that explains these observations. According to (Anton et.al, 2012) a theory can be defined as an answers to queries that joins together different pieces of information of a subject in a coherent and cohesive manner. Psychologists develop a theory after collection of data and supporting evidence and similar results can be reproduced by others.Brody and Thomas (2003) psychological research follows a certain criteria in order to be considered scientific.
The research done must be replicable such that other scientists can repeat it and get the similar results. Psychologists describe their findings in detail through reports on how they made their discoveries so other researchers can repeat the research and get similar findings. The translation of the theory into a specific hypothesis which is an educated guess or prediction which can be tested . Hypothesis are tested using a specific range o fresearch method, such as observation, case studies, a surveys and experiments (Bruno and Leonard, 2009)Dales and Richard (2003) a good theory or hypothesis must be falsifiable which means it must be stated in a manner that makes it possible to accept or reject it meaning it can be right or wrong. Falsification is done in light of the fact that all researchers can capitulate to the affirmation bias.
Researchers who show affirmation bias search for and acknowledge evidence that supports what they want to accept and disregard or reject evidence that invalidates their convictions. Psychologists make sure that they can repeat their own and others’ research. To make theories more exact and substantial, they utilize operational definitions to characterize the factors they think about. Furthermore, additionally endeavor to clarify results by utilizing all around acknowledged theories rather than expand and elaborate new theories.
Parsimony prevents psychologists from inventing and pursuing outlandish theories (Dales and Richard 2003)In psycholigist research there is use of Independent variable (IV) which are variables the experimenter manipulates or changes and are assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable whilst dependent variable (DV) are the variables the experimenter measures, after making changes to the IV that are assumed to affect the DV. Furthermore, extraneous variables are all variables, which are not the independent variable, but could affect the results (e.g. dependent variable) of the experiment. Extraneous variables should be controlled were possible because they might be important enough to provide alternative explanations for the effects ( Stewart andJames,2011)Psychologists also use independent measures which is carried out between different groups. Different participants are used in each condition of the independent variable (Bynum et.al, 2005).
This should be done by random allocation, which ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to one group or the other. It avoids order effects such as practice or fatigue as people participate in one condition only. However differences between participants in the groups may affect results these differences are known as participant variables and is a type of extraneous variable ( Jones et.al 2003 and Bynum et.al, 2005)