Thepresent work was conducted in terrace cultivated rice agricultural fieldslocated on the gentle slopes of hillocks in Senapati District, Manipur (25º16′ 43.3″ N Latitude; 94º 01′ 12.1″ E Longitude), at an elevation rangingbetween 1117 and 1142 m a.s.
l. The climate of the area is a subtropical humidtype. Mean annual temperature of the sites ranges from 3.4ºC to 34.4ºC, relativehumidity varies from 76% to 92% and annual rainfall between 671 mm and 1454 mm.
Soils of the study sites were clayey loam in texture and acidic in nature. Ricecultivation system of NE India, divided into two major types i.e. shiftingcultivation (Jhuming) and the Terrace field cultivation.
Paddy cultivation inthe jhum field is reduced in recent years because of low yield. Further, they areshifted to cultivate some cash crops like potatoes, cabbage, chillies, maizeand ginger. Terrace field cultivation was practiced for rice production on thehill slope and near the river bank.
Paddy was cultivated as a monocrop. Thereare two types of terrace cultivation, the Wet terrace field cultivation and dryTerrace field cultivation. In the wet terrace field’s water is availablethroughout the year. Whereas, in our study site rice cultivation was donethrough dry Terrace method. The dry terrace field cultivation depends entirelyon the monsoon and rainfall.
The terrace agricultural practice is determined bythe ecological factors such as topography of site, quality of soil and sourceof water. For rice cultivation, terrace field can be constructed in between theflat land on the hill slope. Normally, Black soil is the best soil foragriculture.
After selecting the land and soil, the sources of water availablefor the terrace field are considered and the field constructed. Spring waterand the rainfall are the only sources of water for Dry terrace field. However,paddy will not be cultivated if there is no rains and less of spring water.
Forpaddy cultivation, before rainy season the field was ploughed two times with 10days interval to remove weeds and mix the top soil. Organic manures such as leaf litters and cowdung were added tothe soil. Level the field for better water coverage, crop establishment,and weed control. The whole surface thenremained covered with water of about 3 cm. The field is then ready forreceiving seedlings from the nursery. Different varieties of rice arecultivated in different areas according to the climate and environment. Sowingof paddy seed is done only in the month of April- May and in wet terrace fieldconditions.
After 25-30 days of seedling growth, it was transplanted todifferent terrace fields during mid June- last week of July. The dry terracefield plantation happen only after monsoon starts and also depends on theavailability of water for the field. Chemical fertilization was done threetimes within harvesting periods. DAP (DAP 100kg/acre) was applied beforetransplanting seedling to field and after tillering, whereas superphosphate (SP260 kg/acre) was applied during tillering. Urea (100 kg/acre) and potash (50kg/acre) were applied three times, firstly at the time of DAP, 15 days aftertransplanting and tillering of crop plants.