The first chapter of thisdissertation refers to environmental problems related to industrial waste water. Special attention is drawn to less availability of drinking water and alarge amount of waste water generation which leading to instability of ourplanet and irregular environment changes. Therefore, modern civilization needsto find new and practical ways to lessen the impacts on this planet. In thiscontext, oxidation process is more effective treatment.
Moreover, advancedoxidation processes (AOPs) are described as viable alternative to traditionalwastewater treatment.1.1 OverviewWater is a substanceindispensable for life, without which no living being could survive and is alinkage between the entire planet’s ecosystems. Only 3% of water resources arefresh and out of this, 2% is trapped in form of ice so remaining 1% of theplanet’s water is left available for human consumption. Man has alwaysinteracted with the environment, modifying it according to his needs. In thisevolutionary process domestic, industrial and agriculture activities played itspart to acquire meaning to the welfare of modern society.
This all leads to anexponential consumption of raw materials that contribute to the drasticincrease of amount of pollutants discharged into water streams. Among these oneof the major problems that humanity is currently facing is related to the waterand significant issue is related with its quality. The water qualitydeterioration ultimately leads towards water scarcity that is an issue offuture concern. 1.2 Industrial Wastewater & EnvironmentalImpactsWith the rapid development of industrialization andthe increase of population in the world, global consumption of water has beenincreasing. Effluents from industrial waste such as pharmaceutical compounds,pesticides , non -degradable dyes and other fatty acids are main causes ofsurface and groundwater contamination1. Hazardous organic waste from industries mainly from pharmaceutical andtextile are of major concern.
The more complex environmental problems associatewith the textile industry due to extensive consumption of carcinogenic dyes2.Most of the dye molecules are toxic, recalcitrant, chemically andphoto-chemically stable and impart undesirable color to the receiving waters,their release to the environment may pose many serious aesthetical, ecological,environmental and health hazards. 3-5.Also, some human and veterinary drugs are being released in the environmentthat may lead to the long term adverse effects for aquatic and terrestrialorganisms.
Significant concentration has been found in the rivers and othersurface water resources.Conventionaltreatment methods are unable to remove these pollutants from treated industrialwastewater. Unfortunately, hundreds of organicpollutants, classified as bio-recalcitrant are not biodegradable and poseadverse health effects and remain unaffected by Conventional treatment appliedin wastewater treatment plants6, 7.
To prevent water resources and environmental pollution, IndustrialWastewater Treatment is requirement of today’s world. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are the treatmentmethods which are used to remove such pollutants.Some pharmaceutical compounds andtextile pollutants showed resistance towards even advanced wastewater treatmentsuch as adsorption or granular activated carbon or ozonation 8, 9.Therefore,there is a need to remove these compounds from water and tertiary treatmenttechnologies are recommended for this purpose.Of these AOPs, chemical oxidation using ozone, alone orin combination with additional physical/chemical agents (i.
e., advancedoxidation) has been proved a highly effective treatment process for emergingaqueous organic pollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, dyes andnatural fatty acids. The use of AOPs for WW treatmenthas been studied extensively, but UV radiation generation by lamps or ozoneproduction is expensive and could be improved through the use of catalysis andsolar energy 10. The study investigates themechanisms of solar photo-catalytic ozonation processes. It focuses on decompositionof aqueous ozone by UV-visible radiation with focus on impact of solar photocatalytic ozonation on the degradation of industrial wastewater pollutants11.1.
3 Main ObjectivesThe objectives of theresearch are;· Performance study of solar-photocatalytic ozonation process· To evaluate the removal efficiencyof the industrial pollutants using solar photo-ozonation process· Comparison of removal efficiencythrough catalytic ozonation process and solar photo-catalytic ozonation processin terms of removal efficiency and effluent quality.· Investigating the mechanism ofsolar photo-ozonation process in the presence of alumina· Investigating the influence offactors like temperature, pH, initial dose, initial concentration, and effectof hydroxyl radical scavenger and time on the removal efficiency.1.4 Scope of the ThesisWateris an essential element to a healthy lifestyle. Water pollution causes adiverse impact on the environment, so its protection is an important concern.
Moreover, scarcity of water is the main problem that humankind is facing now aday. Industrial waste has been recognized as the majorcontamination of water resources and thus the environment. therefore, greatattention should be given to preserve our resources that are deleting day byday.Textile Industry of Pakistan is a major contributor to water pollution;however, it is difficult to predict a realistic range which could representwastewater quantity generated from textile processing unit.
ETPI’s (Pakistan Environment Technology Program for industry Survey)environmental audits of textile industries show that 0.08-0.15 m3 ofwater is consumed per kg of the finished fabric and 1000-3000 m3 ofwastewater is generated per day against a product of 12-20 ton/day. It is knownthat about 30% of dyes applied remain in the solution unattached to thetextiles (Vandevivere et al., 1998; Yong et al., 2005) depending on the fiber,depth of shade and dye type.
Reactive dyes, for instance occur at highconcentrations in waste streams due to their low fixation to cellulosic fibers.1 Therefor, efforts should be made to develop andimplement new efficient and economical methods of treatment.In this concern,great attention is being given to the removal of these pollutants from textile wastewaterby advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) that are based on generation of highlyreactive species, especially hydroxyl radicals.In this context, the main goal of this Master thesisis thus to explore new methodologies of remediation of textile industrialwastewaters by AOPs methods. Acid red dyeobtained from Sigma–Aldrich was selected for this study because it is widelyused in dyeing wool, silk, and synthetic fiber nylon by the textile industry. These acids degradation was studied by single andcatalytic ozonation such as Al2O3 catalyst.
This method is of recent methods used in thewastewater treatment, which obtain efficient results in the clearance ofvarious pollutants and have the advantage of being performed at room temperatureand pressure.In ozonation system, it was also investigated theinfluence of pH, phosphates and the presence or absence of heterogeneouscatalyst. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, though less studied than thehomogeneous process, is more attractive as it provides greater oxidation efficiency,costs less and is more feasible for practical applications when compared totraditional processes. Moreover, in my researchcatalyst in the presence of solar light was tested. In this ambit, it is the goalto study the efficiency of Solar Photo-Catalytic process which is a new routetaken in this AOPs methods and just preliminary tests were done to analyse theeffect of the several affecting parameters