The Atlantic Periphery is located in
Northeast US and Canada and includes the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and
Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick, and also
includes the most northeastern part of the United States; Maine and New
Hampshire, Vermont, and northeastern New York State. This sub-region is very
culturally diverse due to it covering two different nations. The same can be
said about it economic value as the landscape in this region offers a wide
variety of forests, and waterways. In part of the American section of the
Atlantic Periphery we will be looking at Moosehead Lake, which is the largest
lake in Maine, to show the vast water sources that enrich this region.
According to the USGS 12.8 Percent of Maine is made up of water. As well as the
economic values brought by the different rivers and outlet streams to the
Atlantic Ocean, a very well know product of this is Maine lobster. According to
a CNBC article, “U.S. lobstermen have seen their yearly haul quintuple over the
last 30 years. They brought in 131 million pounds of the crustacean in 2016,
more than 80 percent of that was caught in Maine.”(Gralnick, Jodi, and Contessa Brewer.) To show how diverse this region we will also
cover how the French still have major influence in the area and actually still
maintain control over two islands. The Islands, St.
Pierre and Miquelon, were made
a French possession in 1763. These islands that are off of the western end of
the Newfoundland, the archipelago of Saint Pierre and Miquelon is made up of
eight islands, and of which only two are heavily populated. The islands can be
very plain and rocky, with sharp coasts. This region is very diverse and the
three places I have chosen are should be easily accessible and be a ton of fun
to go and experience.
the Atlantic periphery there are some islands that are still under French
control. Yes even in todays age-old foreign powers still hold power over far
away lands, the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon are examples of this. The
French first settled these islands in the early 17th century. The islands are the
sole remaining possessions of France’s once massive North American colonial
possessions. Geographically speaking the islands actually include eight small
islands consisting of the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups. To give a example
of the size of the islands combined, according to the Central Intelligence
Agency it is “One and half times the size of Washington, DC.”(CIA) “Most of the
population is found on Saint Pierre Island; a small settlement is located on the
north end of Miquelon Island.”(CIA) Those who still live on the islands
traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleet
operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The groups of islands have deep ports
that allow for big ships to go in and out with ease, and have allowed the
economy to be based on shipping and fishing. The economy of the islands however
has been declining. This is the due to disputes with Canada over fishing quotas
and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. Since the
islands economy is based on shipping and fishing anything that effects boating
and shipping will directly affect the economy and the people that are living on
the islands. There have been some recent geological developments in the area. In
the area there has been test drilling for oil. This drilling is in the waters
around Saint Pierre and Miquelon has the potential to bring future development to
the area that would impact the environment, as well as the economy. The
population of the Islands is slowly declining with a negative growth rate of
1.08 percent. “With a majority of the population in the age
range of 25-54.”(CIA) The total population of the islands is around 5,533
people. Getting into the religious realm the islands are very dominate Roman
Catholic, with the CIA reporting that 99 percent practicing this religion. This
might be due to the enormous urban population that the islands have, this being
around 90 percent urbanized. The government form that the islands have follows
that of the French Parliamentary Democracy. Since the islands are a territory
of the French they have representation in the territorial council of France.
The average gross domestic product of the islands is 215.3 million, with a
34,900 gross domestic product per capita. A fun fact of the islands is that
even though they do not cover a large amount of land space they still have two
the Atlantic Periphery region arguably the most popular item is Maine Lobster,
this comes with massive fishing and shipping ports in the area. The first documented lobster catch in Maine was
in 1605. The ratio to the amount of lobsters being caught and the growing
population of the Lobsters meant that in the 17th and 18th
centuries lobsters were plentiful. As one source I found said it, “They were
often considered a paupers food. There are even stories of indentured servants
having it written into their contracts that they could not be served
lobster more than twice a week.”(Lobster Institute) This surplus of lobster did
not last forever though as time moved on new technology was introduced, the
most popular and biggest innovation was the Lobster “Smack”. These were custom
made boats with open holding wells on deck that allowed for the shipping live
lobsters. Those who worked on the custom ships were called “Smackmen”. Smacks
were used well into the 1900s, until they were replaced with new technology.
With the smacks lobster fishing became so popular that by 1828 Maine banned out
of state fisherman from its waters. The next big innovation for Lobster in
Maine was canning. “1842 — Lobster canning started in Eastport, Maine by a
Mr. U. S. Treat, expanding the market. In 1843 a one pound can (meat from 3 ½
pounds of live lobster) sold for 5 cents.”(Lobster Institute) The process of
canning lobster started the technological advancement trend that spanned well
into the 1970’s. Innovations such as wooden parlor traps were created and these
traps were the forerunners of today’s traps, which are made of wire instead of
wood. Wooden traps often had to be taken out of the water for a large duration
of the year, typically several months at a time for repairs. Being that wire
traps are more durable it allows for fisherman to fish almost year around. As the innovations allowed for more and more lobster to be
caught laws had to be put in place, the first major law banned the taking of
egg-bearing females. This conservation strategy had already been practiced by
many of the Maine lobstermen at the time, as it protected the future of Lobster
fishing. In 1874 the first laws regulating minimum size of lobster were
introduced. The original minimum size was 10 ½ inches overall size. This
completely changed the face of the lobster business as this law doomed the
canners who by 1885 basically went out of business. Today however Maine’s
minimum lobster size is 3 ¼ inches and the maximum size being 5 inches. 1910 was a big year
for lobster fishing most sails and engines in boats were replacing oars, and by
1950 hydraulic haulers were introduced adding to the efficiency of the new
boats. In the 1940’s “A company called LobLure began research
on alternative lobster bait. Early alternatives included sanitary napkins
soaked in herring oil to kerosene soaked bricks. Herring is the most popular
bait today with between 700-800 million lbs. used per year in the U.S. and
Canada. Alternative bait studies continue to this day – on everything from
cowhide to soybeans.”(Lobster Institute) In 2016 Maine fisherman hauled almost 530 million dollars in lobster
in. This equates to approximately 131 million pounds of raw lobster
caught. Numbers like this is why Maine lobster is a predominant economic
presence in the Atlantic periphery region. Lobster
overall in Maine, this
includes the fishing and selling of lobster, accounts for almost 1 Billion
dollars of Maine’s economy. Lobster also represents almost 75 percent of the
state’s total commercial fishery value.
Maine is consisted of almost 13 percent
of water. With this fact the introduction of Moosehead Lake is important. Moosehead
Lake is also the largest of the state’s many lakes, Moosehead Lake located in
northwest-central part of Maine. Moosehead is also the largest mountain lake in
the eastern United States. Its waters cover an area of around one hundred and
twenty square miles. The lake sits at an elevation of approximately 1,023 feet;
the lake is ridden with numerous islands, about 80 of them, the largest of these
islands being called Sugar Island.(Encyclopedia
Britannica) Sugar Island
is pretty staggering in its size; it is about four miles long and two miles
wide. Moosehead lake has abnormal and irregular shaped shorelines that help
feature numerous sheltered coves used in fishing and also for recreation. The
lake is staggeringly around 246 feet deep at its deepest point, with its maximum
length being around 40 miles long and its maximum width around 10 miles wide. (McGUIRE, J.)
area has long been sought after by developers to build houses and resorts. It
is a large tourist attraction for Maine, which threatens its local environment.
If developers are allowed in to build the resorts, or if the shoreline is all
bought up by private owners, then the lake will become an expensive place to
visit. The beauty of Moosehead like is that now the public to show off its
beautiful views can access it. It has a long history in the state and will
continue to do so for a long time, the question remains is if the area around
the lake will be bought up for resorts or if it will remain the same as it has
for many generations.
The Atlantic Periphery has a long history
of settlement and economic development in the region, even with a harsh climate
and rugged terrain. The region typically has mild summers, and a very cold
snowy winter due to is latitude. As it was stated before the Atlantic
Periphery is the northern portion of the United States and into Canada,
encompassing part of the Appalachian Uplands. Even though this paper did not
focus on past history of the region Native Americans once inhabited it, before
the arrival of Europeans to the area. These indigenous groups depended on
hunting and fishing for survival and trade. I mention this because it
shows that the culture of this area has stayed consistent over the years, they
still rely on fishing and trading as a big part of the economy. This region is
one that many people do not know a lot about. The three places that were
discussed in this paper are three real places. Real as in you can go and see
them in person, or in the case of lobster you can go and eat it. When looking
at a region that you are unfamiliar with it is important to immerse your self
in the culture that is there, and the three places that were chosen in this
paper will do just that for you.
Central Intelligence Agency: World
Fact Book. http://ttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sb.html
(last accessed 9 October 2017).
Aerial America: Maine. Smithsonian
(last accessed 9 October 2017).
Commercial Fishing Historical
Landings Data: Maine Department of Marine Resources. Maine.gov.
accessed 9 October 2017).
Gralnick, Jodi, and Contessa Brewer.
2017. “Maine’s Lobster Business Is Booming Despite Record
History | Lobster Institute |
University of Maine. 2017. Umaine.edu.
accessed 9 October 2017).
McGUIRE, J. 1908. Ethnological
and Archeological notes on Moosehead Lake, Maine. American Anthropologist 10
(4):549-557. http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.txstate.edu/stable/659684 (last
accessed 9 October 2017).
Moosehead Lake | lake, Maine, United
States. Encyclopedia Britannica.
https://www.britannica.com/place/Moosehead-Lake (last accessed 9 October 2017).
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon – New
World Encyclopedia. 2017. Newworldencyclopedia.org.
accessed 9 October 2017).