The topic of my essay is the
right-wing extremists in Hungary and how they communitace and what are their
goals and programmes. In the past years the main actor of right-wing extremisn
in Hungary was the Jobbik party, which won around 15% of the voters in the
European elections of 2009 as well as in the general election of 2010.
The Fidesz party and the Prime
Minister Orban took over several points of the Jobbik extremist party programme
and adopted them into the governemnt’s policy. The Jobbik’s discourse is mostly
anti-gipsyst, nationalist and they advertise their fight against the corrupt
politicans (hiv). However, because of the latest migration problems the focus
passed from the Roma people to the immigrants. But it is not just the
right-wing Jobbik party who protest strongly against the European immigrant
politics. The governemt’s political massages are mostly about the immigrants
and they use people’s fear and employ many propagandas.
The Growth of Right-wing
Extremism in Hungary
The radical right-wing Jobbik
was founded in 2003 from the ring-wing community. It immidiately won 2,2% of
the voters in the elections of 2006 (Nagy, Boros, & Varga, 2012). That
shows the increasing of the far-right end of the political spectrum. The real
breaktgrough came in 2007 when a palamiritary h the Hungarian Guard emergenced
which was helping to make the Jobbik known better in Hungary. In 2010 in the
Hungarian parliamentary elections the Jobbik was able to increase their
popularity and they became the third strongest party in the Hungarian
parliamnet with 17% of the votes (Nagy, Boros, & Varga, 2012). The Jobbik
now has become the most supported non-government party in Hungary, which brings
us to the question that why is Jobbik so succefull?
Right-wing extremism in the Media
It is an interesting question
that how sohuld the media treat the extremist political formations? We can not
deny how much support Jobbik recieves but in the mainstream media like
television, radio or print media Jobbik is not that much represented. Jobbik
has actually been rather succesful in creating its own alternative media (Nagy,
Boros, & Varga, 2012) on the internet for example. They not necessarily
have to report directly about their extremist ideas sometimes it is enough to
bring them in public attention typicacharacteristicsovide it with indirect
publicity by devoting a lot of spádé to the controversial issues it stands for.
Why people are more and more
open for the radical right-wing politics?
In Europe we can experience a
tendency that more and more voters sympathize with the radical right-wing
parties. But why do we see that change? One of the reasons is the growing
immigration: the immigrant question a big problem in Europe now and the radical
parties tend to use people’s fear about it in order to win more voters. They
question that immigrants could fit in at all in the country because of the
cultural and social differences. And additionally the poorer and uneducated
people regard immigrants as rivals in the labour market and they are worried
that the immigrants will take their jobs. Furthermore people whose economic
wellbeing is dependent on the social benefits see immigrants as free riders who
do not contribute to the welfare system. Another main reason is the fear of the
higher rate of criminalism so they have negative emotions towards immigrants
and that is why they are voting for radical parties (Karácsony & Róna,
In Hungary another impact is
the financial crisis. The global economic crisis has further aggravated this
already worrying situation so the Jobbik has the opportunity to appeal to those
sectors of the electorate who have felt the effects of the crisis most keenly.
Among the lower middle class there are increasing economic uncertainty and
social conflicts and competition for resources which have become acute,
especially between those with the Roma roots and the rest of the population.
Additionally, the large sector of the society feels that their hopes placed in
the new democratic order following the fall of communism have failed to be
fulfilled over the past twenty years (Nagy, Boros, & Varga, 2012). The
unemployed people are tend to rise the extreme parties because they are
disappointed, humiliated and frustrated with their situation.
tend to choose the radical parties who promise a new and hopeful future
(Karácsony & Róna).
A study made in 2012 shows that
there is certainly a demand among Hungarian electorate for a party promulgating
righting extremist ideas (Nagy, Boros, & Varga, 2012). The typical
characteristics and attitudes of the group of society that votes for right-wing
party are prejudice, hostility to the
system and have far-right values. Additionally, they have a general feeling of
pessimism and fear about the future. Prejudiced voters tend to have major
reservations about minorities, the Roma people and especially now the migrants
from poorer countries. Furthermore the majority of them do not tend to support
any homosexual rights. Among the over 16 year old people, 34% are hostile to the system as well as towards Hungarian democracy and generally reject the market economy, and EU institutions, while 43
percent of them hold far-right values. Since
the beginning of the economic and
financial crisis both the fear factor and the level of dissatisfaction have
grown, which also works to the advantage of the political right (Nagy, Boros,
& Varga, 2012).
The Jobbik also know how to
communicate with people from the lower social classes which may also help the