Title: The effect of stress in each individual (on human the body) “When you get the right amount of stress, we call it stimulation, the goal in life is not to get rid of stress but the goal in life is to get the right type of stress, because when it’s the right type we love 2008). It is widely agreed that the human machine is the most complicated machine to explain.

We know very little about its process, and in this modern era no one seems to truly understand how our body system works; researchers have developed their own theories through their experiments, doctors try to understand the body system, while psychologists try to nderstand the brain. In this paper a part of our system is going to be examined: the stress. Stress’s original purpose was to help us survive, but in a vast majority of humans today, it is a wreaking havoc. This experiment illustrates studies done about the said topic.

How does stress affect each individual and how do humans cope with In simple words, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. Adaptation to the environment is the key for all living things to survive. According to prominent researchers, stress is defined as “a real or perceived imbalance between nvironmental demands required for survival and an individual’s capacity to adapt to these requirements” (Sherbone, Davis, Marshall &, 1999). “Boss (1987) points out that “In the Tamud and the Bible, we have read that families have been concerned with events of change, trouble, disaster and ambiguity since the beginning of recorded time” (p. 96). ” (History and definition). Therefore stress has been a factor of human races since the very beginning. Most of the early studies regarding individual stress are from psychobiology, psychiatry, and anthropology. See timeline of development of individual stress in Apendix 1) In 1932 Walter Bradford Cannon, an early American physiologist coined the term “fght or flight response” in his study of how animals react to threats. He discussed details in his book “Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement”.

Cannon’s theory explained that fght or flight response was a reaction of animals to threat. It is a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. The theory was later expanded by Claude Bernard in his concept of homeostasis. In 1956 an Australian- Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye proposed his own study, he suggested the general adaptation syndrome: Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion. In the first stage, is alarm, when an individual first encounters a stressor or a threat, the body gives an alarm reaction.

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It is followed by resistance; that is when the body tries goes back to its natural state. If stress continues the third stage, exhaustion, sets in, and gets tired and that in turn leads to illness. Chronic stress can be very dangerous; it can leads to many different disorders and diseases: obesity, ating disorders, clinical anxiety and depression, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. discovered bacteria that caused ulcers resulting in patients being given anti-biotic pills instead of stress management as treatment.

Stress was later found to shut down non-essential body functions such as the immune system, so in spite of previous research, stress does induce ulcers, however it does not directly cause them. Chronic stress was tested on lab rats and the results showed that they had xperienced chronic stress that those had fewer brain cells than other rats. That mainly took place in the hippocampus, a part of the brain which is responsible for learning and memory, and acute stress can make a human being forget things that they know perfectly well.

Stress can also shockingly make us feel miserable and there is likely a link between stress and happiness in social hierarchy. After researchers use the dominant monkey in a PET scanner, results showed a high amount of dopamine, meaning it felt happy, however the subordinate monkeys had far less dopamine. Stress can also be triggered by surroundings, for instance it’s possible that a Janitor who is appreciated wont feel stress as he believes that he is of some importance.

However, if the same Janitor is subjected to ridicule who is constantly reminded of his place in the hierarchy will feel much more stress. This can be amplified by surroundings such as their house or daily commute. Living in a clean house in a good neighborhood is much less stressful than living in a bad neighborhood, due to crime making people vigilant and on guard. The white hall study carried out in England showed a link between stress and putting on weight as ell as the distribution of that weight, which, according to this documentary showed that subordinate monkeys have fatter behind.

Stress caused fat to go directly to the abdomen and behind is shown to be much more dangerous than regular fat that was located elsewhere on the body. The documentary of National geographic gave an example of how stress can be so alarming. The Dutch Hunger Winter during World War II showed that stress can affect an individual even though they are not aware of it. Dutch researchers wanted to find out any lingering effects of stress so naturally they sets out to see if the fetuses of regnant women during the Dutch hunger winter could be affected by stress.

The fetuses had experienced stress and the effects could still be seen sixty years later. According to the study babies born during the famine had a higher chance of cardio vascular disease and had more hypercholesterolemia. Researchers suggested that the mother’s blood was affected during the famine due to stress and it spreads to the fetus. A genetic structure known as telomere protects the ends of our chromosomes from fraying, and as people age telomeres shorten and stress can increase the rate by which they shorten.

Telomeres can also show how much stress someone is under and for how long because of their variation in size. A study was taken on mothers with disabled children and it has been shown that roughly one year of taking care of a disabled child would equal to six years of aging. Dr Elizabeth Blackburn co-discovered an enzyme, telomerase, which can repair damaged telomeres. This enzyme was shown to accelerate the healing when mothers met to talk to one-another. the mothers apparently use humour to improved their others, it is believed to possibly live longer and healthier lives.

In the last decades Robert Sapolsky, an American Neurobiologist in Stanford University studied stress and used baboon as a subject, for he said they are the best representation of the westernized stress diseases. In his research he found out that there are two hormones that causes stress response, the adrenaline or epinephrine and the glucocorticoids, it comes out in the adrenal gland with adrenaline and these are the two back bones of the stress response. That stress response and these two hormones are critical to our survival. Sapolsky studied the level of stress related ormones of each baboon during relax state and stress state.

He emphasized the social hierarchy of monkeys, the dominant monkeys arteries appeared cleaner than its subordinates as the subordinate monkey has much more atherosclerosis built up inside. Stress increases blood pressure when threatened or scared and paired with unhealthy arteries can also lead to a heart attack, it’s important to solve stress issues sooner rather than later as it can affect your future health. University studied stress and used baboons as subjects, for he believed they were the best representation of westernized stress diseases.

In his research he found out that there are two hormones that cause stress responses, adrenaline or epinephrine and glucocorticoids. They come from the adrenal gland with adrenaline and these are the two back bones of the stress response. The stress response and these two hormones of each baboon during relaxed states and stressed states. He emphasized the social hierarchy of monkeys. Dominant monkeys’ arteries appeared cleaner than their subordinates as the subordinate monkeys had much more arteriosclerosis built up inside.

Stress increases blood pressure when threatened or scared and when aired with unhealthy arteries can also lead to a heart attack,and therefore it’s important to solve stress issues sooner rather than later as it can affect someone’s future health. In the study of Robert Sapolsky, a wild baboon which he studied for twelve years took to scavenging food from a nearby garbage dump , resulting in the death of every alpha male leaving only the less aggressive friendlier males which in turn changed the group from fghting constantly to a much more peaceful group.

New adolescent males that Joined the group tried to fght, however after a while they learned that it as not acceptable. and assimilated into the group although getting to the point, the monkeys experienced lowered blood pressure and stress as each monkey’s social rank was much less important. This can also be applied to humans. Humans can have multiple hierarchies, for example someone can have a Job as a receptionist but also be captain of a softball team, and it is up to the person to decide which is more important to them.

Sapolsky also added that when a man runs for his life, basics are all that matter. Lungs work excessively to pump much larger quantities of oxygen to the blood tream, the heart beat raises to pump blood throughout the body so that muscles respond instantly. Blood pressure goes up to deliver the energy needed to turn off anything that’s not essential in growth reproduction, when one knows their life is in so it must stop in order to give the energy to what is important.

Method Participants: The sample comprised of sixty four interracial second year psychology students of University of Central Lancashire in Preston, England and Larnaca, Cyprus. There were thirty females from Preston, and thirty two males from Preston and two females from Larnaca. The sample was randomly divided into a group of three. Two out of the three students were the experimenter, while one is the subject. Materials: Each group has a copy of the protocol from the instructor and a computer to access the stressor. Procedure: In each group of three.

Two of them are the experimenter and one is the subject. In order for the experiment to be successful the experimenter should make sure that the group is following the rules especially in getting their data. The experimenters ought to record the gender of the subject before proceeding with the experiment, and then count the pulse for a minute of the subject, in accordance with he instruction. There are two different kinds of data: the first data should be taken when the subject is relaxed, and the second data is taken when the subject is stressed by the given stressor.

The first procedure is by manipulating the subject by making sure he/she is in a relaxed state by giving him/her the standard induced imaginary instructions. The subject should be sitting comfortably with eyes closed, is comfortable enough, the induced imaginary instructions that were provided by the class instructor should be read aloud by one of the experimenter, then after reading wait for five minutes, and hen the pulse should be taken for a minute by the experimenter using two fingers: the pointing finger and the ring finger.

Then record the data. The second procedure is by asking the subject to complete the timed PowerPoint computer task, which was a mathematical puzzle that its level of difficulty increases record the data. The existing set of data should be immediately added in the excel file. Results This section analyses the results of the experiment. Mean scores and standard deviation for both stress state and relax state are shown in fgure 1 . Condition state Stress state Mean 72. 7 117. 4 Standard deviation Relax 13. 04 20. 4


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