The superiority ofthe West Coast crumbled when Tupac Shakur was murdered in 1996, Dr.
Dreswitched sides and Suge Knight, the CEO of Death Row Records, was jailed overbusiness practices. Although Dr. Dre let West Coast hip-hop bloom again withhis comeback album called “2001” in 1999 (Adaso, 2017),hip-hop’s emphasis had shifted back to the East Coast and to the emerging Southby the end of the 1990’s (AllMusic, 2017). For gender prejudices and negative impacts on African-American women, e-hopmusic and its subculture was and still is the subject of relentless criticism.Lyrics by gangsta rap artists like Eazy-E, Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg include theportrayal of women as sex toys and the inferiority of women to men (Giovacchini, 1999). As a consequence, masculinesovereignty and the dependence of women on men gets specifically fosteredthrough hip-hop music (Weitzer & Kubrin, 2009, p. 12).
In certain hip-hop lyrics and videos, the portrayal of women is ignominious,sexualized and forcible (Cundiff, 2013, p. 3).Additional, women are shown with idealized bodies and being the object of maleenjoyment (Emerson, 2002, p. 131).
Humiliating lyrics and the depiction of sexual violence and sexual assaulttowards women are represented in a high frequency of records (Cundiff, 2013, p. 3). Due to theseanti-women hip-hop lyrics, some male listeners created negative stereotypes ofyoung urban African-American women and even made physical threats toward those (Morgan, 2005, p. 427).
Death Row Records built up an empire around Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg and thecharismatic, revolutionary rapper and actor Tupac Shakur (Light & Tate, 2017), who joined thelabel in late 1995 and became a superstar with the hit song “California Love”featuring Dr. Dre (AllMusic, 2017). In 1996, hereleased his classic and most famous album called “All Eyez on Me” on Death RowRecords (Errey, 2017). At the same time, arivalry emerged between Death Row Records and New York City’s Bad Boy Records. Thisrivalry evolved into a media-fueled feud between East Coast and West Coastrappers, which ended in a tragedy (Light & Tate, 2017).
As he rode in a car driven by Death Row Records CEO Suge Knight near theLas Vegas strip on September 7th 1996, Tupac Shakur was lethally injured bymultiple gunshots. 5 days later, he died. The debate on whether rap furthersviolence or just mirrors the ugly side of the streets was revived by his death (Adaso, 2017). G-Funk was heard for the first time when former N.
W.A. member Dr.
Drereleased his album called “The Chronic” at the end of 1992 (Errey, 2017). The uniqueproduction of this album with its whiny synthesizers, P-Funk beats and deep,slow grooves was the blueprint that helped Los Angeles’ Death Row Recordsbecoming the major hip-hop label of the early 1990’s with hits scored by SnoopDogg, Warren G and many more (AllMusic, 2017). “The Chronic” hadalready achieved multi-platinum status in the year after its release and onlyone year later, in 1994, Warren G’s “Regulate: The G-Funk Era” was alsocertified 4x platinum (Adaso, 2017). Funk grooves by thefamous P-Funk group “Parliament-Funkadelic” were often sampled by G-Funkproducers by slowing them down to create relaxing beats with female backingvocals, funky bass lines and electronic effects. The lyrics of G-Funk rapperswere more focused on partying, drugs and sex than violence, crime and guns (Errey, 2017). Gangsta rap played an important role in hip-hop becoming mainstream.
Blackteens were no longer hip-hop’s only buyership because albums like N.W.A’s “Straight Outta Compton”, Eazy-E’s “Eazy-Duz-It” and Ice Cube’s “Amerikkka’s Most Wanted” were sold insuch high numbers which led to new audiences and customers (Kitwana, 2006, p.
118). There were parts of the United States that were unaware of theconditions of the ghettos. Gangsta rap became some kind of a stage for artistswho used their music to spread political and social messages to these mentionedparts (Strode & Wood, 2008, p. 186).Media critics claim that political and social hip-hop has mostly beenneglected by mainstream America, while hip-hop music addresses a widerpopulation (Butler, 2017). I mean they’vedone movies about nurse killers and teacher killers and student killers.
ArnoldSchwarzenegger blew away dozens of cops as the Terminator. But I don’t hearanybody complaining about that. It’s like they want to shut rappers down. Theywant to silence us. The Supreme Court says it’s OK for a white man to burn across in public.
But nobody wants a black man to write a record about a copkiller. (Philips, 1992) Ice-T was also seen as one of the developers of the gangsta rap genre (Errey, 2017). He recorded “6 N’the Mornin'”, what some consider to be the first original gangsta rap song (Strode & Wood, 2008, p. 186). In tracks like “You Played Yourself”from 1990, he started by sampling funk-orientated music and rapping about drugsand their perils, felony and dropping out of school (Errey, 2017). His song “CopKiller” from the album “Body Count” even caused an extensive altercation,because the story of the song is told from the perception of a villain gettingrevenge on racist and brutal cops. Several police advocacy groups, the NationalRifle Association and government officials were irritated by Ice-T’s rock song.Because of the controversy about “Cop Killer”, Time Warner Music consequentlydenied to release Ice-T’s imminent album “Home Invasion.
” Ice-T stated that theriot over the song was an overreaction and besides that, the misunderstandingand the efforts to censor it contained racial hints, telling journalist ChuckPhilips: violent stories of downtown real life gave birth to the genre known asgangsta rap (Light & Tate, 2017). Straight OuttaCompton, N.W.A.’s 1989 gangsta-rap milestone, paved the way for a morerecognizable West Coast rap style (AllMusic, 2017) and was the mostsignificant response to New York hip-hop (Light & Tate, 2017).
On this album, themembers of N.W.A. rapped about injustice and police violence in theirneighborhood, because they were from Compton, one of Los Angeles’ poorest andmost violent districts (Errey, 2017).Its sound was hard-core and minimalist, its lyrics varied between violentpleasure addiction and furious social statement (AllMusic, 2017). Thesong “Fuck tha Police” off the album even provoked the first substantialcontention concerning hip-hop lyrics by earning a letter from FBI AssistantDirector Milt Ahlerich, who explicitly enunciated law enforcement’s contemptfor the song (Ritchie, 2007). N.W.
A’s secondalbum “Niggaz4Life” from 1991,which sold over 954’000 copies in its first week of release (Adaso, 2017), became the firstgangsta rap album which reached the number one spot on the charts (Hess, 2009, p. 238).Ice Cube made solo records which retained that lyrical sound whileincluding noisy production after leaving N.W.A (AllMusic, 2017). A good example of such a record is hisclassic gangsta album “Death Certificate” from 1991 (Errey, 2017).As West Coast rap grew in popularity in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s,the group N.W.
A., with its famous members Ice Cube, Eazy-E and Dr. Dre, was inthe lead. Their metaphorical and During the middle section of the 1990’s, the hip-hop scene was dominated byWest Coast Rap, which turned gangsta rap into an admired miracle while Dr. Drewas constituted as one of the most important individuals in rap history. Therap scene of California was way more diverse, even if Dr. Dre’s created G-funkdetermined the West Coast sound.
East Coast party rap was mainly copied by WestCoast rap until the mid- to the late 1980’s. Nevertheless, Los Angeles and theBay Area soon demonstrated to be productive regions. The comedy rap of ThePharcyde, the enormous powerful, Latino-colored stoner funk of Cypress Hill andthe pioneering gangsta related recordings of Ice-T were all produced in LosAngeles. The Bay Area however answered with Too $hort and his pimp-obsessedrhymes, Digital Underground and their happy, P-Funk-inspired songs and the popsuccess of MC Hammer. Summarized, West Coast rap became as versatile anddifficult to classify as East Coast rap (AllMusic, 2017). The four elements of hip-hop in general are DJing, MCing (rapping), graffitiart and break dancing, defined by DJ Afrika Bambaataa (Brown, 2009). During the 1980’s and the1990’s, this cultural movement obtained enormous popularity.
Hip-hop is the backing music for rap, which is a musical style includingrhythmic and rhyming speech. Rap is the movement’s most enduring and mostpowerful art form (Light & Tate, 2017). Rap went viral fromits birthplace New York through the rest of the United States and then toplenty of other countries. Every region in the United States has its ownspecific style of hip-hop music (AllMusic, 2017).