The basic structure of a research experiment
Psychologists use different types of
research like descriptive, correlational and experimental. Each of them requires
different ways of statistic analyses and have a different view on the question.
Is some studies methods are combined.
Experimental is used to check whether
the hypothesis is true and to understand the causes of behavior. Hypothesis should
be well structured based on observations, highly educated guess, “If we do A,
than B will happen”. It can be a review on previous research or new theory. The advantage of this method is that scientist
have more control over situation. The disadvantage is that it can be artificial
because participants understand that they are taking part in the research.
First of all, the hypothesis is formed. It contains the two variables: independent, which should be controlled and manipulated, dependent variable is based on our original hypothesis. The participants are divided randomly for control group and experimental group. Groups should be as similar as possible. Data is collected and interpreted to evaluate it. When the whole study is done it goes under the peer review. Peer review is when your competent colleagues analyze and check your work. Moreover, usually the replication is done with same hypothesis and same conditions to check whether the whole experiment is true. If it meets coincidence it means that the first experiment was susceptible
After everything is done the study can be published.
Hypothesis is a falsifiable
prediction that can be tested and measured, it describes what you expect to
happen in certain conditions, defines the connection between two variables, has
dependent and independent variable. The purpose is to find answer to the
Independent variable is the part that
can be tested and changed, happens first, represents the outcome, effects on
Dependent variable is measured
thought experiment as a result.
Control group is separated from
others and being tested, usually held on normal conditions.
Experimental group is the group o
which experiment is performed.
Random assignment is when all the
participants assigned randomly(by chance) to control group and experimental
group to make sure that differences within the group are not systematic.