The school curriculum will provide learningopportunities which will enable all students to achieve the learning objectivesto the best of their ability. Meeting the individual needs of each student canbe a monumental task for teachers. But doing so is very important for preparingthese students to become active, effective learners for life. This is a bigleap away from the near factory style “teaching to the test” that has been usedfor years. Moving toward a more personal approach can help ease stress on bothteacher and student in the classroom.
There are some factors determiningleaners and their needs. First is the curriculum. The need to be givenappropriate levels of work, to know about what is to be learned, to be set realistic, short term targets, tohave support in the acquisition of component or pre-requisite skills and so on.Second is cognition. The need to have explanations which are comprehensible, tohave misunderstandings and misconceptions identified and rectified, to be given’conceptual scaffolding’ which will enable the organisation of detail or theelaboration of abstract concepts, to have available such strategies asconcept-mapping, to assist in the development of understanding and so on. Third is the management of learning.
The need to havesupport in the self-pacing or management of work, to be assisted inunderstanding how to work profitably in groups or teams, to be able to identifystrategies for problem-solving/tackling exam questions/takingnotes/highlighting key points/revising, to develop a strategy for asking forassistance with problems and so on. Fourth is motivational factor. The need tobe motivated to learn, to expect success and progression in learning, to beconfident, to expect problems to be capable of resolution, to have high butattainable goals, to recognise purpose in the learning process, to value theskills and knowledge acquired in school and to have an expectancy that theseare a springboard for future learning and so on.
Fifth is personal factor. The need to have idiosyncraticpersonal issues taken note of such as times of crisis or stress, to havepersonal circumstances taken into account, such as lack of facilities for doinghomework, lack of parental support or encouragement, to have assistance withimproving personal and inter-personal skills, low self-esteem, to have help indealing with peer group pressure and so on. People are not the same. Somepeople learn better by reading things. Others learn better by doing things.Others learn better by talking about them. Some people cannot read.
Otherpeople cannot read English. Some have never had a job. Others have a number ofjobs. Some have short attention spans.
Some can concentrate for hours. Somecannot sit still and need to be active. Others cannot stand up at all.
Thereare many ways that people learn, and there are many needs that people may have.The learning needs of people are influenced by their other characteristics. Human growth and development Child development theories focus on explaining howchildren change and grow over the course of childhood. Such theories centre onvarious aspects of development including social, emotional, and cognitivegrowth. In order to understand human development, a number of differenttheories of child development have arisen to explain various aspects of humangrowth. First is Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory. Erikson’seight-stage theory of psychosocial development describes growth and changethroughout life, focusing on social interaction and conflicts that arise duringdifferent stages of development. Rather than focusing on sexual interest as adriving force in development, Erikson believed that social interaction andexperience played decisive roles.
His eight-stage theory of human developmentdescribed this process from infancy through death. During each stage, peopleare faced with a developmental conflict that impacts later functioning andfurther growth. Unlike many other developmental theories, ErikErikson’s psychosocial theory focuses on development across theentire lifespan. At each stage, children and adults face a developmental crisisthat serves as a major turning point. Successfully managing the challenges ofeach stage leads to the emergence of a lifelong psychological virtue. Second is Behavioural Child Development Theories. Behaviouristsbelieved that psychology needed to focus only on observable and quantifiable behavioursin order to become a more scientific discipline.
According to the behaviouralperspective, all human behaviour can be described in terms of environmentalinfluences. Some behaviourists, such as John B. Watson and B.F.Skinner, insisted that learning occurs purely through processes of associationand reinforcement.
Behavioural theories of child development focus on howenvironmental interaction influences behaviour .These theories deal only withobservable behaviours. Development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishments,stimuli and reinforcement. Two important types of learning that emerged fromthis approach to development are that classicalconditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioninginvolves learning by pairing a naturally occurring stimulus with a previouslyneutral stimulus. Operant conditioning utilizes reinforcement and punishment tomodify behaviours. Third is Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory.
Cognitive theory is concerned with the development of a person’s thoughtprocesses. It also looks at how these thought processes influence how weunderstand and interact with the world. Piaget proposed an idea that seemsobvious now, but helped revolutionize how we think about child development, Childrenthink differently than adults. His cognitive theory seeks to describe andexplain the development of thought processes and mental states. It also looksat how these thought processes influence the way we understand and interactwith the world. Piaget then proposed a theory of cognitive developmentto account for the steps and sequence of children’s intellectual development.
First is the Sensorimotor Stage. A period of time between birth and age twoduring which an infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to his or hersensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviours are limited to simplemotor responses caused by sensory stimuli. Second is the Preoperational Stage.
Aperiod between ages 2 to 6 during in which a child learns to use language.During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannotmentally manipulate information and are unable to take the point of view ofother people. Third is the Concrete Operational Stage. A period betweenages 7 to 11 during which children gain a better understanding of mentaloperations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but havedifficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. Fourth is theFormal Operational Stage. A period between ages 12 to adulthood whenpeople develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.
Skills such aslogical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emergeduring this stage.Fourth is Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. Bandurabelieved that the conditioning and reinforcement process could not sufficientlyexplain all of human learning According to social learning theory, behaviourscan also be learned through observation and modeling. By observing the actionsof others, including parents and peers, children develop new skills and acquirenew information. Bandura’s child development theory suggests that observationplays a critical role in learning, but this observation does not necessarilyneed to take the form of watching a live model.
Instead, people can also learnby listening to verbal instructions about how to perform a behaviour as well asthrough observing either real or fictional characters display behaviours in booksor films.Fifth is Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory. Like Piaget,Vygotsky believed that children learn actively and through hands-onexperiences. His sociocultural theory also suggested that parents,caregivers, peers and the culture at large were responsible for developinghigher order functions. In Vygotsky’s view, learning is an inherently socialprocess. Through interacting with others, learning becomes integrated into anindividual’s understanding of the world. This child development theory also introducedthe concept of the zone of proximal development, which is the gap between whata person can do with help and what they can do on their own. It is with thehelp of more knowledgeable others that people are able to progressively learnand increase their skills and scope of understanding.
Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognizeyour emotions, understand what they’re telling you, and realize how youremotions affect people around you. It also involves your perception of others:when you understand how they feel, this allows you to manage relationships moreeffectively. People with high emotional intelligence are usually successful inmost things they do. Because they’re the ones that others want on their team.When people with high emotional intelligence send an email, it gets answered.When they need help, they get it.
Because they make others feel good, they gothrough life much more easily than people who are easily angered or upset. There are five elements of emotional intelligence. Firstis Self-Awareness. People with high emotional intelligence are usuallyvery self-aware. They understand their emotions, and because of this, theydon’t let their feelings rule them. They’re confident – because they trusttheir intuition and don’t let their emotions get out of control.
They’re alsowilling to take an honest look at themselves. They know their strengths andweaknesses, and they work on these areas so they can perform better. Manypeople believe that this self-awareness is the most important part of emotionalintelligence. Second is self-Regulation. This is the ability to controlemotions and impulses. People who self-regulate typically don’t allowthemselves to become too angry or jealous, and they don’t make impulsive,careless decisions.
They think before they act. Characteristics ofself-regulation are thoughtfulness, comfort with change, integrity, andthe ability to say no.Third is motivation.
People with a high degree ofemotional intelligence are usually motivated. They’re willing to deferimmediate results for long-term success. They’re highly productive, love achallenge, and are very effective in whatever they do. Fourth is empathy. Thisis perhaps the second-most important element of emotional intelligence. Empathy isthe ability to identify with and understand the wants, needs, and viewpoints ofthose around you.
People with empathy are good at recognizing the feelings ofothers, even when those feelings may not be obvious. As a result, empatheticpeople are usually excellent at managing relationships, listening,and relating to others. They avoid stereotyping and judging too quickly, andthey live their lives in a very open, honest way.
Fifth is social skill. It’s usually easy to talk to andlike people with good social skills, another sign of high emotionalintelligence. Those with strong social skills are typically team players.Rather than focus on their own success first, they help others develop andshine. They can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and are mastersat building and maintaining relationships.Multiple IntelligencesAccording to Howard Gardner, intelligence is the abilityto solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or morecultural setting. There are nine types of intelligences.
First isverbal-linguistic intelligence. They are well-developed verbal skills andsensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words. Second ismathematical-logical intelligence.
The ability to think conceptually, abstractlyand capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns. Third is musicalintelligence. An ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, timber andother musical elements.
Fourth is visual-spatial intelligence. It is thecapacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately andabstractly. Fifth is bodily kinesthetic intelligence. Theability to control one’s body movements and to handle objects skilfully. Sixthis interpersonal Intelligence. The capacity to detect and respond appropriatelyto the moods, motivations and desires of others. Seventh is intrapersonalintelligence. The capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings,values, beliefs and thinking processes.
Eightieth is naturalist intelligence.The ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects innature. Ninetieth is existential intelligence. The sensitivity and capacity totackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, whydo we die, and how did we get here.