Terrorism is a demonstration of terror or violence offenlyused to make a nation or a certain group fearful in order to achieve a certainaim.
Although it is often characterized as a strategy used by a group of people(terrorists) to give rise to fear and extreme reactions within a largepopulation. There are many types of terrorism such as civil unrest, Politicalterrorism, Non-Politicalterrorism, Quasi-terrorism,Limited- political terrorism andstate terrorism but no proper typologyis given. John Philip Jenkins, a Distinguished Professor of History from Baylor University classifiesthe terrorism into three main types: revolutionary, subrevolutionary, and establishment terrorism. It is considered to be amajor problem for the societies worldwide in the present age where the threat of terrorism continues to cause destruction and deaths for useless means.Not only terrorism caused a huge destruction locallybut it widely effects globally. Effectsare not limited to only an area but are destructive worldwide. According to afamous terrorism, disputes talking site’terrorismanalysts.com’ the writer state that ”The effect of Terrorism isnot limited to its actual victims.
The consequences of terrorist attacks often go far beyond the destructionand deaths they cause………………….terrorist attacks are designed to instill fear andintimidate a population in order to achieve their political objectives”These terrorist attacks not only caused globaldisturbance, spoiled environment, country markets collapse but also had a majorpart in the destruction of culture andcountries relations. The number of terrorist attacks was highduring the early 2000’s due to the terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda on the UnitedStates and the wars in the Middle East during this time period. In the past year, the countrywith the most terrorist attacks was Iraq, followed byAfghanistan and Nigeria visible on Global terrorism index. Altogether, thenumber of terrorist attacks in these countries amounted to 7,400 attacks.Despite having been the country with the most terrorist attacks in 2013, therewere more fatalitiesdue to terrorist attacks in Afghanistan in 2011 thanin Iraq.
The GTI report shows that there is a significantdecrease in the number of deaths in the top five high rated terrorismcountries. From a global point of view, the region in the world withthe highest number of terrorist attacks in recent years was theNear East and South Asia. The number of terrorist attacks in this region in2011 amounted to almost 8,000. Not onlydoes terrorism have a massive social impact on the world, but it also has anenormous global economic impact. The costs of terroristattacks by insured property losses have cost the insuranceindustry billions over the past time. The bombing of the London financialdistrict in 1993 cost the insurance industry approximately 1 billion U.S.dollars.
Financial markets have provedthat they would not act against these attacks as showed by their silentreaction after the Paris and Brussels attacks onon. However, the long-term social damage may be more difficult toassess. Given that the attacks in Europe have occurred at a time when thecontinent is already struggling with its worst refugee crisis since World WarII, they may serve to fan the flames of anti-foreigner sentiment and spur therise of nationalist political parties, which may have dire consequences forregional and global geopolitics.Terrorism is arisk in the business world.
For example that attacks in New York wereestimated to have a great impact as itcost $1.7 billion on the sale and $1.75 in lost rent in 2003 by the New Yorkcomptroller. On the BBC news channel, Mr. Younger also warned that”hybrid warfare”, which included cyber-attacks and it was becoming an”increasingly dangerous phenomenon”. According to Dawn, Pakistan is one of the countries who facehigh rates of terrorist attacks. The Global Terrorism Index (GTI) has proved it thatPakistan is the fifth top terror rated country with a rating of 8.4.
For 3 year, Pakistan has witnessed fewer terroristattacks and deaths. In 2016, there were 956 deaths from terrorism; the lowestnumber in a decade. The biggest terrorist group in Pakistan is Tehrik-i-TalibanPakistan (TTP); which has killed the most people in Pakistan. Since 2000, TTPhas been responsible for 4,500 deaths, which account for over half of alldeaths from terrorism by terrorist groups.
Since 2007, Pakistan has ranked thefourth worst country for terrorism and on six events was ranked second. On April 17th 2005, the Pakistan Student Association (PSA) which had partnered with the International RelationsSociety (IRS), arranged a discussionshowing “Pakistan’s Contributions in the War against Terror” which further tellabout the bad impacts of terrorism to Pakistan’s infrastructure andeconomy “Over half a millionPakistanis have been forced to relocate and billions of dollars ofinfrastructural damage has been caused as a result of terrorist activity.Asghar a speaker claimed that the human cost to Pakistan as a result ofterrorism is one of the highest in the world.”Even dawn news article speaks of it”A CURSORY analysis of the START Global Terrorism Database revealsthat over the past decade, Pakistan has had the highest number ofterrorism-related deaths in the world.
” According to Pak Institute forPeace Studies (PIPS) security report in 2006, 657 terrorist attacks notonly injured 1,543 people but killed 907 people. The terrorist attackscontinued to happen as a result in 2007, 1,503 terrorist attacks caused about3,448 deaths and 5,353 injuries that is stated in PIPS security report. Thereport states that, “Pakistan faced 60 suicide attacks during 2007, which killedat least 770, besides injuring another 1,574 people showing a visible increase in suicide attacks after Lal Masjid operation”.In 2008 Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP)in its yearly report told that there were estimated 67 suicide attacks inPakistan causing 973 people deaths. Further, a source in the investigationagencies revealed that the total number of suicide blasts in Pakistan since2002 went up to 140 (till 21 December 2008) 2009 is marked to be the worst of any year as 2,586terrorist, insurgent, andsectarian-related incidents were reported that killed 3,021 people and injured7,334, according to the “PakistanSecurity Report 2009” published by PIPS. According to an independent research site, pakistanbodycount.
org maintained by Dr. Zeeshan-ul-hassanUsmani a Fulbright scholar deaths fromsuicide bombings up to October 2011 were 5,067 with over 13,000 injured. The effects of terrorism aredisastrous as it is negatively impacting local, national and internationalcommunities. Seen from a localperspective, the terrorist attacks haveits own effects that including the injuries, deaths, and trauma on the victims. These terrorist attacks not only upsetthe people but also put a bad name for the country. Some of the famousnewspapers such as dawn news also explain the attacks happened in Pakistan andtheir effect on its citizen and itself. The survivors usually face stress, anxietyand severe depression. Living a life with conversations, concerns and risks ofsuch violent death creates fear between people and force them live their wholelife under restriction and prohibitions.
Some of the major incident such asPeshawar army school massacre not only deeply made Pakistan citizens insecureabout their security but also it causedabout more than 150 causalities including 134 death of childrenThere are many causes of terrorism or unlawfulviolence such as growing Injustice,Illiteracy, Poverty and Unemployment and Dissatisfaction. many authorsand articles conclude its causes as Bruce Hoffman, author of the book ‘Inside Terrorism’, giving a valid explanation of term terrorism as wellidentifies the causes of terrorism as he identifies the relation of religionand terrorism showing a complete researchon how different religious views causes extreme terrorist behavior by Islamic,Jewish and Christian communities. Another famous author Marc Sageman speaks in his book Understanding Terror Networks thatone of the major cause of terrorism is unevenness in cultures. Furthersupporting his opinion he gives the example of Hamburg Cell, consisting oftwo of the pilots in the 9/11 terrorist attacks. He further links the causeof terrorism with religion as he says”The global Salafi jihad is a worldwidereligious revivalist movement with the goal of reestablishing past Muslim gloryin a great Islamist state stretching from Morocco to the Philippines,eliminating present national boundaries.”Robert Leiken supporting the idea of Marc Sageman about the major cause of terrorism ,in his paper Europe’s Angry Muslims explains these views by discussinghow the “outsiders” Muslims from different area and the “insider” Muslims fromEurope are subjected to discrimination and situation lead to extreme tension inthese people as they start to feel themselves different from outside world.
Globalization may become a reason for the terrorism as Omer Taspinar states in Fighting Radicalism, Not “Terrorism, “Globalization creates an acute awareness aboutopportunities available elsewhere. This leads to frustration, victimization,and humiliation among growing cohorts of urbanized, undereducated, andunemployed Muslim youth who are able to make comparisons across countries.”Kilcullen in ‘TheAccidental Guerrilla’ gives his views on causes of terrorism as he discusses how a terrorist group moves into anarea with poor government or a conflictedarea (he uses Al Qaeda specifically) to create their own place for terroristactivities and when a foreigner tries tointervene, unrest began and formation of other terrorist organization happen.Perhaps the main reasons for terrorismare religious differences, non-supportable government actions, discrimination and many other.Many organizations are working to prevent terrorism.
The United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorismwas established withmain objective to fight against terrorism. Astrategy was developed. After 9/11 the UN SecurityCouncil called on states to take action to curb terrorism and it set up a Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) to monitorprogress.
NATO (North Atlantic treaty organization) ananti-terrorism organization, uses new techniques to finish and prevent terrorism.It also makes use of its membership in Global Coalition to Defeat ISIL as itestablishes new cell at NATO Headquarters and appointsa coordinator for checking NATO’sefforts in the fight against terrorism on 25 May 2017. Withinweeks of the attacks, United Nations Security CouncilResolution (UNSCR) 1373 spoke with United Nations(UN) member to stop terrorist financing. On June 7, 2013, Florindo Flores, theleader of the Shining Path guerillagroup, was found guilty of terrorism, drug trafficking, and money laundering, and sentenced to life in prison and a fine of$183 million.The reduction indeaths from terrorism in Pakistan is due to Operation Zarb-e-Azb by thePakistani Army started in mid-2014. To reduce terrorism, we should do work individually such as posting on socialmedia, taking a look of the societyaround, supporting organization against terrorism, acting equal toward otherpeople to clear our differences and to reduce poverty by offering money topoor. Some people have a certain opinion that by providing education we cansolve this problem but we have to also identify that the increasingglobalization or less literacy rate is not only the problem that causesterrorism. Terrorism is not an issue to be solved for just government, it is aglobal problem to be fought against.
After reading many articles andresearching on it, I found that terrorism can’t be fought until we are unitedto fight against it. In my opinion, terrorism is due to racism, discrimination,injustice and religious differences which important to be stopped as it notonly affect a small reign but a bigger place hence my claim is proved