Tentative title:Tribal Youth’s Participation in Governance and/ for Development: With SpecialReference to Kurkheda Block of Gadchiroli District.IntroductionInthe development discourses in India, tribes continue be view as monolithic categorydespite significant differences among different tribal groups. There isevidence of increasing socio-cultural and political differentiation amongdifferent tribal group and there are regional variations in the developmentindicators of Scheduled Tribe across the country. The tribal developmentpolicies and programs are centers on the homogeneity of tribal people and assumethat they will develop and integrate into the mainstream. The various criticsand of the current development model rooted in the modernization paradigm haveshown the contradiction inherent in the model including the state initiateddevelopment for marginalized people such as tribal communities.
(Burmon 2004,Pathy1998). They argue that state welfare policies for tribal communities andthe oppressive and coercive measure against them operate in a manner that leadsto not only the economic and political marginalization of tribal communitiesbut also heir cultural and social exclusion. This kind of discussion has beenrevisited recently in the context of Scheduled Tribe. In today’s context theconcept of development has a major thrust on economic growth but socialdevelopment and the interlink ages between social and economic development is stressin different discourses. Today development is applied to all fields of human endeavorit seen as expansion of choice, human capability, expansion of freedom participationand quality of life. It is closely linked with notion of state and governance.
Traditionaland non-traditional means formal institutions are part of political system oftribal world. While their everyday activities play important role in theprocess of their political participation in traditional and new emerging institutionwithin community where how they make their decision and perceive these fortheir development or community development. That is the reason to capture thetribal youth voices within perspective for their development with their attitude.Rational of the Study From the post – independence period, the tribaldevelopment issue is oscillating within two actors, state and non-state actors.In non-state actors, NGOs and Naxalite Movement play a really important part indetermining the concept of development for tribes. Whereas government (State)also sets its own definition through various policies and plans for them. Bothhold their own vital manifest or latent interests and therefore, in these past70 years, tribal communities are not included in mainstream society. Instead,they are marginalized day-by-day andvictimized by various state or non-state and state supported agencies throughrigorous exploitation, displacement, oppression, and further exclusion.
Thesevarious agencies not only claim about their own status of ‘masihas’of tribes, but also claim that theyproduce an ideal model of development for these tribes. Though, all thesemodels are failing to pull up the tribes from their deprived status. There is aneed to see the perspectives from within which are limited in various studiesregarding tribal development.
Mostly the work has been done with an outsider’sperspective and with a colonial lens till today. There is vital role of thepolitical structure of governance in the development and empowerment of thetribes in India. Whenever the state and non-state actors fail to bring changeand include them in the mainstream the major problem is the failure tounderstand the voices of tribal youth in the governing process. There isimposition of state political institution which creates the confusion and chaosin governance structure in tribal area. State formal institutions also fail tolook and articulate the tribal political system and are a matter of concern inunderstanding the democratic political discourses. These discourses how the tribalyouth get understand and analyze in the perspective of development.
Development includes paradigms of self-reliance,empowerment, and people’s participation in decision making, fulfillment ofbasic needs and so on. In India local communities has got power under the 73rd&74th constitutional amendment. In tribal areas PESA has enacted andit has given power to the local self-government. The three-tier Panchayati Rajsystem constitutes the foundation on which stands the entire edifice of ruraldevelopment in India. InGond tribal community also nowexploring the political institution, non-constitutional institutions andgoverning various activities and programs for there so called development. Butagain the failure nature of the policies and program need to collect the voicesand perspective from tribal in the governance system towards outcome better fortheir world. The rational of this study is how this structure does reflect andcrystallised democratic determination for their development and empowerment ofthe people. The intention is to capture their experiences and ideas,perceptions about the development through the governance system or understandtheir concept of development and the thought about the political representationleads towards their inclusion or development from various perspective.
Socialwork in India is an important stage of transition where bottom-up approach ormodel from indigenous communities are increasingly being assimilate ineducation as opposed to the earlier largely western models. In today’s contextthe governance as mentioned is a right constantly within the sphere of conflictbetween the state and community itself. In order to develop and a people centerright based governance model it is important for social work as a profession toexamine identify these areas of conflict and challenge. Within the lager sphereof social work this study will take the perspective of tribal social work.Statementof the Problem There are many plan and policies for marginalisedgroup to bring them in mainstream. Development is a bout change andtransformation which can bring by the youth in today’s context because they aremain agents of socio-economic change in grassroots level. Now government andprivate institutions are engaged in the development of the scheduled tribe andaccept their assimilation into mainstream but still the issues of marginalizedand deprived community has not been understood by the mainstream populationwhere the representation of these peoples low and not come with welcome.
Statemakes plan and politics for their development but there is need to understandthe perspective within towards development where tribal community and speciallyyouth can make their rational voices about the politics around theircircumstances. Political participation and governance is important factor toachieve their development by this way. The power has been given to Gramsabhaand authority and power should perform by very well in today’s context. But inthe todays context in tribal zone there are various issues about theirinclusion in mainstream. In the processof PESA act and other development program implementation process about inreality the traditional and formal institutions. At the grassroots level thereare conflict going around the implementation of PESA and FRA act in scheduledarea.
All the power has been given to Gramsabha and that’s why whole notion of developmentof tribe take place around the activities occur in the community. The Kurkhedablock of Gadchiroli district is under Scheduled V area and in today’s contextthere are many issues are rising by tribal community. One side state makes provisionto give power to Gramsabha and other side its again violet their rights. In thatprocess the tribal youth include educated ad non-educated should be understandand analyse the current scenario. Therefore there is need to see such issue howtribal youth perceive this. Because it affects their future and communityissues where whole world is thinking about their socio-economic, political andcultural development and due to such interfere of state into local communityand mostly youth’s life get spoils by this activities.
This kind of issues getaffected to large number of tribal community an youth who are agents of thesocial transformation so their perception and attitudes towards theirdevelopment and conflict resolution can make better for their future life. Thatis reason to understand and analyse the youth point of view through this study.