TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZETRAFFIC JAMS1- Intelligent Transportation Systems: Thesesystems include the application of huge range of new technologies, trackingsystems and vehicle control systems, electronic and transit improvements and informationof driver. They lead to different kinds of improvements in transportation,including more competitive transit, convenience for driver, support forincentives for pricing, reduced congestion, and better safety. Motoristinformation can include message signs, reports through radio and information onthe internet about conditions of traffic. These would decrease stress for the motoristby letting them know the future conditions. Some of the applications of intelligenttransportation system, which guide traffic are summarized below:· Supporting real-time driver information includingtraffic cameras, congestion mapping and variable message boards (VMB)accessible by the general public.
· for advising road users, traffic reporting, via radio, GPS, or mobile phones, · Guidance andinformation systems relating to Parking providing real timeadvice to motorists about free parking.· Systems of Navigation,linked up to automatically reporting of traffic.· Automating of the highwaysystems, an idea which if implemented, would reduce safeinterval between cars while increasing the capacity of highways2- Fees Basedon the Distance: Vehicleinsurance, vehicle taxes, and registration fees (fixed costs) provides a greatdeal of financial motivation when translating into distance-based charges, toreduce driving applying what’s called pay as you drive, which can be comparedto nearly doubling fuel prices. Unlike road pricing, fees based on the distanceaffect all travel, not just travel on certain highways, and hence it provides loweringof congestion benefits on surface streets without leading to directing of thetraffic to alternate routes.
3- Management of Parking and Parking Pricing:Theseare a standout amongst the best measures to lessen automobile traffic in urbancongested regions. More efficient pricing of parking on-road would make urbandriving more expensive yet more effective. Driving and parking are practicallyperfect supplements: you require a parking spot near each place you need to go.Some specific parkingmanagement strategies are Parking UseRegulation, Shared Parking, RemoteParking Access Management4- Vehicle Restrictions and Pedestrian Improvements:Vehiclelimitations incorporate different administrative systems constraining carmovement in single time and region. Despite the fact that this is by allaccounts one of the least complex approaches to decrease the number ofvehicles, it is regularly hard to actualize effectively. Whenever viable,vehicle confinements can decrease movement blockage, street and parking costs,crash dangers, emissions of pollutants and effects on nature. They can likewisepositively affect safety.
5- Road Pricing: It is about charging fees to motorist straightawayfor driving on a particular road or in some particular segment. In general roadpricing has two objectives: management of congestion and generation of profits.In certain periods of time, it is required to apply congestion pricing, so asto reduce the traffic during the rush hour, charging more prices during periodsof heavy congestion, which is usually in the morning and late afternoon. 6- High Occupancy Vehicles Priority, Transit Improvementsand Rideshare ProgramsHOV Priority strategies favourbus; vanpool and carpool travel, including:· Special benefits to riders taking highoccupancy vehicles, like include them in commute trip reduction programs.· Preferred building access and parking (such asHOV parking located close to the front of buildings)· Changes in Streetscape to favour HOVs, such asimproved bus stops, Favourable parking spaces or discounted parking fees tovehicles ride sharing.· Intersection controls that give priority toHOVs. For example, a traffic signal might be set to stay green for severalextra seconds if that allows a bus to avoid stopping, or gives separate greentime for these lanes.· Queue-jumping lanes, this means that othervehicles must wait to enter a highway or intersection, but HOVs enter directly.
· Dedicating arterial traffic lanes for HOV, orlike lanes open only to buses which called busways· High Occupancy Toll lanes. They are HOV lanes allowinglow occupancy vehicles after a toll pay.Anothereffective congestion reduction strategies are transit improvements andrideshare programs, to reduce traffic congestion, transit services must:· Serve a major share of major urban corridorsand destinations.· Offerhigh quality service (relatively convenient, fast, frequent and comfortable)that is attractive to travellers.
· Be relatively with reasonable cost, low faresand discounts targeted at peak-period travellers.The main concept of howtransit and HOV reduces traffic congestion is summarized as follows:If congestion increases, people change destinations, routes, traveltime and modes to avoid delays, and if it declines they take additionalpeak-period trips. The quality of travel alternatives has a significant effecton the point of congestion equilibrium: If alternatives are poorer, fewmotorists will shift mode, if these alternatives are relatively attractive,motorists are more likely to shift modes.7- Other Measures include Intersection Improvements, Grade separation, RoadCapacity Expansion, Incident Detection and Management, One-Way Streets, Narrow Vehicles, Urbanplanning and design.