1- Intelligent Transportation Systems: These
systems include the application of huge range of new technologies, tracking
systems and vehicle control systems, electronic and transit improvements and information
of driver. They lead to different kinds of improvements in transportation,
including more competitive transit, convenience for driver, support for
incentives for pricing, reduced congestion, and better safety. Motorist
information can include message signs, reports through radio and information on
the internet about conditions of traffic. These would decrease stress for the motorist
by letting them know the future conditions. Some of the applications of intelligent
transportation system, which guide traffic are summarized below:

Supporting real-time driver information including
traffic cameras, congestion mapping and variable message boards (VMB)
accessible by the general public.

for advising road users, traffic reporting, via radio, GPS,  or  mobile phones,

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Guidance and
information systems relating to Parking providing real time
advice to motorists about free parking.

Systems of Navigation,
linked up to automatically reporting of traffic.

Automating of the highway
systems, an idea which if implemented, would reduce safe
interval between cars while increasing the capacity of highways

2- Fees Based
on the Distance: Vehicle
insurance, vehicle taxes, and registration fees (fixed costs) provides a great
deal of financial motivation when translating into distance-based charges, to
reduce driving applying what’s called pay as you drive, which can be compared
to nearly doubling fuel prices. Unlike road pricing, fees based on the distance
affect all travel, not just travel on certain highways, and hence it provides lowering
of congestion benefits on surface streets without leading to directing of the
traffic to alternate routes.

3- Management of Parking and Parking Pricing:
are a standout amongst the best measures to lessen automobile traffic in urban
congested regions. More efficient pricing of parking on-road would make urban
driving more expensive yet more effective. Driving and parking are practically
perfect supplements: you require a parking spot near each place you need to go.

Some specific parking
management strategies are Parking Use
Regulation, Shared Parking, Remote
Parking  Access Management

4- Vehicle Restrictions and Pedestrian Improvements:
limitations incorporate different administrative systems constraining car
movement in single time and region. Despite the fact that this is by all
accounts one of the least complex approaches to decrease the number of
vehicles, it is regularly hard to actualize effectively. Whenever viable,
vehicle confinements can decrease movement blockage, street and parking costs,
crash dangers, emissions of pollutants and effects on nature. They can likewise
positively affect safety.

5- Road Pricing: It is about charging fees to motorist straightaway
for driving on a particular road or in some particular segment. In general road
pricing has two objectives: management of congestion and generation of profits.
In certain periods of time, it is required to apply congestion pricing, so as
to reduce the traffic during the rush hour, charging more prices during periods
of heavy congestion, which is usually in the morning and late afternoon.


6- High Occupancy Vehicles  Priority, Transit Improvements
and Rideshare Programs

HOV Priority strategies favour
bus; vanpool and carpool travel, including:

Special benefits to riders taking high
occupancy vehicles, like include them in commute trip reduction programs.

Preferred building access and parking (such as
HOV parking located close to the front of buildings)

Changes in Streetscape to favour HOVs, such as
improved bus stops, Favourable parking spaces or discounted parking fees to
vehicles ride sharing.

Intersection controls that give priority to
HOVs. For example, a traffic signal might be set to stay green for several
extra seconds if that allows a bus to avoid stopping, or gives separate green
time for these lanes.

Queue-jumping lanes, this means that other
vehicles must wait to enter a highway or intersection, but HOVs enter directly.

Dedicating arterial traffic lanes for HOV, or
like lanes open only to buses which called busways

High Occupancy Toll lanes. They are HOV lanes allowing
low occupancy vehicles after a toll pay.

effective congestion reduction strategies are transit improvements and
rideshare programs, to reduce traffic congestion, transit services must:

Serve a major share of major urban corridors
and destinations.

·      Offer
high quality service (relatively convenient, fast, frequent and comfortable)
that is attractive to travellers.

Be relatively with reasonable cost, low fares
and discounts targeted at peak-period travellers.

The main concept of how
transit and HOV reduces traffic congestion is summarized as follows:

If congestion increases, people change destinations, routes, travel
time and modes to avoid delays, and if it declines they take additional
peak-period trips. The quality of travel alternatives has a significant effect
on the point of congestion equilibrium: If alternatives are poorer, few
motorists will shift mode, if these alternatives are relatively attractive,
motorists are more likely to shift modes.

7- Other Measures include Intersection Improvements, Grade separation, Road
Capacity Expansion, Incident Detection and Management, One-Way Streets, Narrow Vehicles, Urban
planning and design.




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