TB is a communicable disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Causes lesions in the lungs known as tubercles. It influences lungs in 80 percent cases. However, it also can affect other parts of the body such as an abdominal cavity, joints, meninges, female reproductive organs, skin. TB can be prevented, treated and cured with appropriate treatment and medications.Table of Content1.    Introduction2.    Epidemiology3.    Types of TB4.    Causes/risk factors5.    Sign and symptoms6.    Diagnosis 7.    Treatment8.    Prevention9.    Conclusion10.    ReferencesIntroductionTuberculosis(TB) is identified by German Microbiologist Robert Koch in 1882. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria is founded in both animal and humans which is the cause of TB. It causes lesions in the lungs which is known as tubercles (Aldridge, 2016).  Although TB is a communicable disease it can be treated, prevented and cured.EpidemiologyTB is an infectious disease. It affects one-third of the world’s population. It is also the most leading cause of death and second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. In 2013, 9 million new cases of TB were reported. The case detection rate was only around 64% because around 3.3 million people suffer from TB was undiagnosed or not reported. At the same time 1.1 million people were estimated to have tuberculosis- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (Dheda, Barry & Maartens, 2016). TB is patent in Asia and Africa because 86% of TB cases reported in these areas (Kakchapati, Gyawali, Jha , 2012). Inadequate treatment or irregular drug supply of TB can result from Multidrug-resistance TB(MDR-TB). Resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin is known as MDR-TB. Morbidity and mortality rate of MDR-TB is higher than drug-sensitive TB (Kakchapati et al., 2012).Types of TB90% people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria remains asymptomatic and they cannot transmit an infection to others known as latent infection (Zumla, Raviglione, Hafner & Reyn, 2013). About 10% of latent infection can progress to active infection if not treated on time. Patients with active infection develop symptoms and can be transmitted infections to others. On the basis of human organs, there are another two types of tuberculosis which are pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. TB which affects the lungs is known as pulmonary TB. TB which affects others parts of the body such as, skin, female reproductive organs, meninges, the abdominal cavity is known as extrapulmonary TB. About 85% of diagnosed cases of TB is pulmonary and 15%of TB is extrapulmonary. Causes/Risk FactorsThe main cause of TB is Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. It can be transmitted through droplet, when TB patient exhales, laughs, sneeze or a cough, the bacilli released into the air. If the healthy person inhales the air they can be infected. On the other hand, in comparison with other infectious diseases, it advised less infectious (Cooper, odle , 2014). There are many other causes which can increase the risks of TB. They are overcrowding, homelessness, malnutrition, the presence of HTV.Sign/ symptoms    Although, more than 90% of people infected with M. tuberculosis they remain asymptomatic which is known as latent TB. Despite, active pulmonary TB have symptoms like a chronic cough, sputum production, appetite loss, weight loss, weakness, fever, night sweats and hemoptysis (Zumla et al.,2013). Fluid may collect in pleural cavity which is known as pleural effusion may cause difficulty in breathing and shortness of breathing and also recurrent cough for weeks to months (Cooper et al., 2014).DiagnosisThe tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma release assay can use for diagnosis of latent infection and risk groups. However, these test is not suitable for the patient who has active TB (Zumla et al., 2013). The culture and sputum microscopy is standard methods to diagnose active TB (Zumla et al., 2013).Treatment There are various drugs which are used to treat TB. They are Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. These drugs are using to treat TB but it differs for latent and active Tb as well as multi-drug resistant TB. A person who is suffering from latent Tb and have increased the risk to developed active TB they required preventive treatment. In latent phase isoniazid, 300mg daily given for six months and recommended to continue until nine months if its co-infected with HIV infection. Directly observed therapy (DOT) is used to control MDR-TB by tuberculosis control programmers which helps to decrease the number of defaulting therapy (Dheda, 2016). MDR-TB needed prolonged treatment compare to other TB. PreventionGenerally, Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is used to prevent TB. BCG is one of the most effective methods to prevent TB during childhood. People infected with HIV a lives in high burden area with an unknown result of tuberculin test and without active TB recommended to have isoniazid for at least 6 months as preventive therapy (Zumla et al., 2013). In addition, there are various preventive measures of TB. The regular screening program in the high-risk area, avoid overcrowd and maintain hygiene also can help to prevent TB.


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