Task 1

Question 1

Projects, usually, are categorized into three different types:
market driven, change driven and crisis driven, based on their respective
functions and usages. By definition, change driven projects are expected to
meet certain goals in order to change operation to match the environment;
crisis driven projects are usually anticipated to response to urgent
situations, such as the evacuation of a terrible natural disaster. The project
in task 2, in my opinion and based on the Managing Projects (2014, p7), should
be defined as market driven project, which uses new technologies to produce
products that meets the market needs to increase competitiveness. Furthermore,
this project, as addressed in task 2 briefing that it is partially considered by
the company as a response to the effects of globalization, should be
categorized as market driven project.


Question 2

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Defined by Project Management Institute (2013, p51), “Project Scope
Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes
all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project
successfully”. The scope statement should first include project justification
or the benefit of building a new site and introducing new technologies; second,
product description that briefly documents the characteristics of the product;
third, the deliverables: sub-products or tools will be used to make the product
successful; fourth, project objectives which include cost, schedule, and
quality. The most important tool that will be used in to show the sub-division
of the scope of work is a Work Breakdown Structure. A Work Breakdown Structure defined
by Pinto and Jeffrey (2015, p173) is “a process that sets project’s scope by
breaking down its overall mission into a cohesive set of synchronous,
increasingly specific tasks.” In other words, WBS helps the project team
understand the steps and details that are required to make sure the completion
and success of this project.


Question 3

              Gantt charts are an easy method to
present beginning and end of a project. It also helps managers to schedule
different tasks and track the progress of the entire project. The advantages of
creating and using a Gantt chart is that it helps managers monitor and control
the progress of the project because Gantt chart shows prerequisites for each
separate activity. It helps managers set priorities, notice what needs to be
done first in order to continue the progress, and make changes to the preset
schedule and plan. By identifying a critical path— “series of interdependent
activities of a project, connected end to end” (Pinto, 2015, p332), managers
can determine the shortest total length of the project. By looking at the
critical path, managers will clearly see what tasks need to be finished before
the next dependent one can start, so if a critical task cannot be completed on
time, the whole project will be delayed, vice versa.


Question 4

       Generally speaking, the success of a
project must be based on the consideration of key factors that define the very
nature of a project (Pinto, 2015, p36).

Time—can the
project be finished on time or even earlier than expected

Budget—did the
cost meet our estimation or budget

the outcome of the project meets the specifications of the requirements

Scope– work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or
result with the specified features and functions

Defining success of a project can be hard sometimes, since different
people will take different elements into account. Therefore, comparing the
future outcome of the project (products or services) with time, budget, and
quality all combined together is probably the easiest way for the


Question 5

risk management, which is a four-stage process—identification, analysis,
mitigation, and control and documentation (Pinto, 2015, p245), can be helpful. First,
management team must know what the risk could be and what might cause them to
happen. Second, a risk impact matrix should be constructed to reflect all
identified project risks, each prioritized according to the probability of its
occurrence (Pinto, 2015, p248) in order to have a general idea of the risk
likelihood and consequences. Third, after analyzing the risks, use different
strategies to transfer—for example liquidation; minimize—reduce the damage to
minimum; accept the risk if its damage is minor and if it is not avoidable; or
share risks by bring in investments or contracts that legally require risk
sharing. Finally, use control and documentation system to classify and codify
various risks for referencing. This helps managers make quick and effective
decisions if similar events occur in the future (Managing Projects, p127).

Question 6

       In order to make sure that project in
task 2 is completed successfully on-time and within budget, project evaluation,
monitoring and control method should be implemented. This method allows
management team stay on top of a project’s changing status as it moves through
different life cycles toward its completion (Pinto, 2015, p453). First method
can be used is milestone analysis. Milestones of a project represent
significant stage completion during the process of the project. It can motivate
the project team, make changes to meet new objectives, help coordinate
schedules with suppliers and vendors, notify other team members to begin their
part, and develop a better overall view of the project. Another method is
called tracking Gantt charts. By doing so, project team can constantly update
project’s status by linking task completion to the schedule baseline. Tracking
Gantt charts helps project management team monitor specific activity starting
and ending date, thus make adjustments to ensure project can be finished on
time, if necessary. Now more and more companies use EVM—earned value
management, to monitor and control their projects, because it is believed that
it is necessary to consider the impact of time, cost, and budget all together
to determine the current status of a project. Unlike other methods, EVM
provides integrated information for managers to have a better understanding of
the current situation and to determine what changes have to be made (Pinto,
2015, p460).









TSK Bearings Project Management Report


       To and increase automotive industry
competitiveness, TSK Bearings Ltd has decided to introduce new technology and
machinery, transferred from Asia, into a manufacturing site within the UK as
part of a strategy of expansion. This project must be completed by March 2018
with a 12 million GBP budget including the purchase and building of a
manufacturing site, and training and recruitment of team members for the
success of project completion and of new technology implementation. In the
report, project life cycle—concept, development, implementation, and
termination—along with management skills, will be the main theory used to
explain and describe essential activities, during the management process,
required to successfully manage this new initiative, ensuring that it is
on-time, and within budget.


Concept Stage

Defining objectives

In this stage the entire team need to get a basic idea of the
project’s objectives. First thing to start with as a manager is to have a clear
understanding of the objective which is to make sure that the building of new
manufacturing site and the transfer of new technology will be accomplished
within the time and budget limitations with specific quality requirenment. At
the same time, opinions or anticipations of stakeholders or owners of this
project must also be taken into consideration, because the difficulty of
achieving total success derives from the hardship of the objectives and the
requirements of many different groups of stakeholders for the project (Maylor,
p76). For example, some stakeholders emphasize more on the short-term rate of
return, others may focus on long term development of the company. It is
important to balance and finalize, and have a specific and clear direction that
members can work towards, otherwise project may fail during its process. This
project does not only serve the purposes of catching up with new production technology.
This project “establishes a sense of what the organization hopes to accomplish
or what top managers hope it will become at some point in the future (Pinto, 2015,
59),” because as mentioned in the task 2 brief, it considers expanding
production capacity as its organizational strategy for the future.

Management team and required skills

Quality of a team determines how successful can a project be. In
other words, team members and teamwork is crucial to project management. We
must work within teams, and we must build our teams in such a way that members
can and will work together cooperatively to complete the project. An effective
team could be described as any group of people who must significantly relate
with each other in order to accomplish shared objectives (Michael, 2008). Team
building should start as early in the project life cycle as possible—in the
concept stage, because the performances of everything that comes up in the
following stages will be based on the efficiency and effectiveness of the team.

success of a team can be influenced by two important factors: leadership and
individual skills and attitudes. Addressed by Harvey Maylor (2011, 268),
“leadership involves the influencing of others through the personality or
actions of the individual”. Manager is the dynamic, life-giving element in
every business. Without his or her leadership, the materials and labor of
production remain what they are and never become products. Manager leads the
team by obtaining resources for the team, motivating team members, having a
vision for the project, and communicating with team members (Pinto, p139). As
the manager for this project, I will need to be familiar with each member’s
capability, and at the same time build up a relatively good communication
channel with each member. This can facilitate appointing personnel to separate
activity when work breakdown structure is introduced. For individual team
members, they are required to train in Asia for potentially 12 months to gain
knowledge, experience and assist the implementation of the new technology.
Since team members are to be recruited from existing company staff with some
members recruited externally, as mentioned in the task 2 brief, cooperation
between internal and external members. I, as the manager of this project, play
important in making sure our team is fully functional without any conflicts between
team members.

Cost estimation

Nothing can be done without sufficient resources. Within
limited budget (12 million pounds), manager of this project must devise an
estimation of required resource as sophisticated as possible. Resource
limitation, as one of the constrain, includes both money and people. Since we
already have existing team members, initial project cost estimation and
budgeting—the financial part—are extremely important elements in the project. It
is essential to estimate cost before the project starts, because it creates a
reasonable budget baseline for the project and identify project resources as
(Pinto, p279). Cost estimation also relates to scheduling or time management,
because “if necessary, additional resources will be added to the project to hit
critical launch window (Pinto, p423).” Meanwhile, cost over estimation should
be avoided. If estimation exceeds actual resources required for the project,
wastes will be generated, thus leading to less profit or even potential failure.

After full assessing the activities mentioned above and
determined that the project is feasible, manager need to obtain approval for
the next stage, which is the development stage.


Development Stage

Development scope baseline

A scope baseline is a document that provides a summary description
of each component of the project’s goal, including basic budget, end product
quality, and schedule information for each activity. Scope baseline shows
detailed goals for the team members to focus on. It reflects a team’s best
effort in creating the documentation and approval of all important project.
Creation of the scope baseline is the final step in the process of laying out
all pre-prepared knowledge about this project, in which each sub-activity of
the project has been identified and given its control parameters of cost and
time table (Pinto, p173). The establishment of scope baseline not only set a
specific objective for the team to achieve, but also serves as a tool for
monitoring and control in the future. By looking at various activities and
their requirements and specifications, manager will be able to identify and
make adjustments during the process to determine whether the project is working
toward its success.


Even though cost estimation gives us a general idea of how much
resources are required in achieving project objectives, budget development identifies
the detailed resources, the project’s goals, and the timetable that allows an
organization to achieve those goals. A budget helps in planning actual
activities by making managers to consider how the situations might change and
what changes should be made, and by encouraging managers to consider problems
before they show up. It also helps to organize the activities of the company by
making managers to carefully check the relationships between their own tasks
and those of other departments of the company. In this project, activity-based
costing method should be implemented. It assigns cost first to activities and
then to the project based one each project’s use of resources (Pinto, p296). In
this project, budget can be separated into two parks: new manufacturing site,
and team member training and new technology transformation. Within the 12
million pounds project budget, resources should be allocated effectively into
each individual activity, such as purchase of construction material, labor
cost, purchase of new machinery, etc. The entire project team need to be
familiar with respective cost of each activity to optimize limited resources,
because the implementation of monitoring and controlling can be much easier if
any potential event occurs that may benefit or harm the project,

Work breakdown structure

Work breakdown
structure is a deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements which
organizes and defines the total scope of projects (Pinto, p173). Work breakdown
structure provides management team with a clear view of how many individual
activities are needed for the completion of the entire project. Each
sub-activity represents an increasingly detailed description of a project elements.
After creating a work breakdown structure, team members can be appointed to be
responsible for each task, and cost can be allocated to different activities,
which helps determine and make adjustments to budget during the process. Furthermore,
work breakdown structure can facilitate the creation of schedule by using Gantt
charts and identifying critical path for different activities. Work breakdown
structure can be crucial to the project, because a
poorly constructed WBS can result in adverse project outcomes including
ongoing, repeated project re-plans and extensions, unclear work assignments,
scope creep or unmanageable, frequently changing scope, budget overrun, missed
deadlines, and unusable new products or delivered features (Brotherton, 2008).

Assessing risks

analysis and management is a very important project management part to make
sure that the least number of surprises occur while the project is during its
process. While we can never predict the future with certainty, we can apply a
simple and streamlined risk management process to predict the uncertainties in
the projects and minimize the occurrence or impact of these uncertainties (Lavanya,
2008). However, there’s a problem in assessing risks is that risks are possible
future events that have not yet occurred, thus their probability of occurrence
can only be estimated (Hillson, 2004). For example, the possibility of natural
disaster that may delay the construction of new site cannot be determined, even
though previous weather data will be taken into account. Therefore, when
assessing risks, we need to take precaution, because overestimate the
possibility of risks may discourage team members and allocate unnecessary
resources for response plan.



Organization communication

As we mentioned before, communication within the management team is
extremely important to make sure that the project is on its right track, organization
communication need to be emphasized at the same time. The project of a company,
in this case building a new production facility, needs cooperation within the
entire company to ensure its success. First of all, in order to make sure every
step taken during the process of successfully accomplishing the project,
employees of the entire company need to be able to work together smoothly
without any conflicts or arguments. Trust between members or managers from
different departments can create a sense of transparency. Where keeping
employees in the dark can result in resentments, tension, and a feeling of not
needed in the organization, which may lead to consequences no one anticipates. Good
organizational communication can also facilitate changes or adjustments that
must be made during this implementation stage.


The project needs to be completed by the end of march 2018 with a 12
months team member training for knowledge and transfer of the new technology of
new machinery. Gantt charts and critical path should be used as main techniques
for coming up a sophisticated schedule. Gantt charts are an easy method to
present beginning and end of a project. The advantages of creating and using a
Gantt chart is that it helps managers monitor and control the progress of the
project because Gantt chart shows prerequisites for each separate activity. It
helps managers set priorities, notice what needs to be done first in order to
continue the progress, and make changes to the preset schedule and plan. By identifying
a critical path— “series of interdependent activities of a project, connected
end to end” (Pinto, 2015, p332), managers can determine the shortest total
length of the project. By looking at the critical path, managers will clearly
see what tasks need to be finished before the next dependent one can start, so
if a critical task cannot be completed on time, the whole project will be
delayed, vice versa.

Monitoring and control

During the implementation stage, each individual activity need to be
carefully checked before the project keeps going. Project performances must be
monitored and measured regularly to identify variances from the original plan.
This procedure involves cost management, quality management, and risk
management and so on. To make sure everything goes with the plan, several
techniques need to me introduced: project s-curve, milestone analysis, and
tracking Gantt charts. The project S-curve represents the typical form of such
a relationship. Milestone analysis signals the completion of important project steps,
motivate the project team, and offer points at which to reevaluate client needs
and any potential change requests (Pinto, p455). If time and cost spend are not
properly monitored, the project may be dragged without regarding the schedule,
which in turn results in over budgeting, waste of resources, and bad quality. Poor
monitoring and control of a project could negatively impact the project’s objective
according to the original management plan. ‘

Termination Stage




of references

Harvey maylor.
2011. Project management. Harlow:
Financial Times Prentie Hall.

University of
Sunderland. 2014. Managing Project. Wordhouse
Ltd, Reading, UK.

Project Managing
Institute. 2000. A Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge. Project Management Institute, Inc.

Pinto, Jeffrey
K. 2015. Project Management: Achieving Competitive
Advantage. Pearson Education.

Thomas, M.,
Jacques, P. H., Adams, J. R., & Kihneman-Wooten, J. (2008). Developing an
effective project: planning and team building combined. Project Management Journal,
39(4), 105–113. URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.20079.
10 Jan, 2018.

S. A., Fried, R. T., & Norman, E. S. (2008). Applying the work breakdown structure to the project management
lifecycle. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2008. Project Management Institute.

Lavanya, N.
& Malarvizhi, T. (2008). Risk
analysis and management: a vital key to effective project management. Paper
presented at PMI® Global Congress 2008. Project Management

Hillson, D.
& Hulett, D. T. (2004). Assessing
risk probability: alternative approaches. Paper presented at PMI® Global
Congress 2004. PA: Project Management Institute.



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