Substructure: the ground on which it the combined

Substructure: Foundations – the function of any foundation is to safelysustain and transmit to the ground on which it the combined dead, imposed andwind loads in such a manner as not to cause any settlement or other movementwhich would impair the stability or cause damage to any of the building.Foundation Design Principles – the main objectives offoundation design are to ensure that the structural loads are transmitted tothe subsoil safely, economically and without any unacceptable movement duringthe construction period and throughout the anticipated life of the building orstructure. Stages of Basic Design Procedure:1)Assessment of site conditions in the context of the siteand soil investigation report.

2)Calculation of anticipated structural lading. 3)Choosing the foundation type taking into consideration – a)Soil conditions; b) Type of structure; c) Structural loadings; d) Economicfactors; e) Time factors relative to the proposed contract period; f)Construction problems.4) Sizing the chosen foundation in the context of loading,ground bearing capacity and any likely future.Concrete foundations – is a material which is strong incompression but weak in tension. I it is tensile strength is exceeded crackswill occur resulting in a weak and unsuitable foundation.  One method of providing tensile resistance iito include in the concrete foundation steel bars as a form of reinforcement toresist all the tensile forces induced into the foundation.

Short Bored Pile Foundations are suitable for domesticloadings and clay subsoil’s where ground movements can occur below 1M relatedwith traditional strip and trench fill foundations.Raft Foundation can be used for light loaded buildings onpoor soils or where the top 450 mm to 600 mm of soil is overlaying poor qualitysubsoil.      Superstructure: Timber frame constructionFraming – an industry based pre-fabricated housemanufacturing process permitting rapid site construction. Factory-made panelsare based on a stud framework of timber, an outer sheeting of plywood,insulation between frames and an internal lining of plasterboard. An outercladding of brickwork weatherproofs the building and provides a traditionallook. Columns – this are the vertical loadbearing members of the structural frame which transmits the beam loads down tothe foundations.

They are usually constructed in storey heights and thereforethe reinforcement must be lapped to provide structural continuity.Beams – this are horizontal loadbearing members which are classified as either main beams which transmit floorand secondary beam loads to the columns or secondary beams which transmit floorloads to the main beams. Simply supported Slabs – this are slabs which res on a bearing and for design purposesare not considered to be fixed to the support and are therefore, in theory freeto lift. In practice however they are restrained from unacceptable lifting bythey own self weight plus any loadings.

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 RoofsRoof structures must provide resistance to failure due tooverstressing. It must be able to support own self weight, wind and imposedloads like snow. Roof coverings must provide adequate weather exclusion, havereasonable durability and be aesthetically acceptable. Roof must provide the required level of sound insulation andprovide good resistance to heat loss.

 Use of the building may not be possible without developed infrastructure in the nearby area. Foreasy access to the building, it is necessary to build motorway junction, anasphalt road, lamp posts and bridge across the river. It is also necessary tobuild a parking lot.

 The building cannot beconsidered as residential if no domestic services and communications areconnected to it. Types of DomesticServices: Water supply; Drainagesystems, Road drainage; Gas supply; Electrical supply; Ventilation systems;Telephone and Electronic communication

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