Foundations – the function of any foundation is to safely
sustain and transmit to the ground on which it the combined dead, imposed and
wind loads in such a manner as not to cause any settlement or other movement
which would impair the stability or cause damage to any of the building.

Foundation Design Principles – the main objectives of
foundation design are to ensure that the structural loads are transmitted to
the subsoil safely, economically and without any unacceptable movement during
the construction period and throughout the anticipated life of the building or


Stages of Basic Design Procedure:

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1)Assessment of site conditions in the context of the site
and soil investigation report.

2)Calculation of anticipated structural lading.

3)Choosing the foundation type taking into consideration – a)
Soil conditions; b) Type of structure; c) Structural loadings; d) Economic
factors; e) Time factors relative to the proposed contract period; f)
Construction problems.

4) Sizing the chosen foundation in the context of loading,
ground bearing capacity and any likely future.

Concrete foundations – is a material which is strong in
compression but weak in tension. I it is tensile strength is exceeded cracks
will occur resulting in a weak and unsuitable foundation.  One method of providing tensile resistance ii
to include in the concrete foundation steel bars as a form of reinforcement to
resist all the tensile forces induced into the foundation.

Short Bored Pile Foundations are suitable for domestic
loadings and clay subsoil’s where ground movements can occur below 1M related
with traditional strip and trench fill foundations.

Raft Foundation can be used for light loaded buildings on
poor soils or where the top 450 mm to 600 mm of soil is overlaying poor quality









Timber frame construction

Framing – an industry based pre-fabricated house
manufacturing process permitting rapid site construction.

 Factory-made panels
are based on a stud framework of timber, an outer sheeting of plywood,
insulation between frames and an internal lining of plasterboard. An outer
cladding of brickwork weatherproofs the building and provides a traditional


Columns – this are the vertical load
bearing members of the structural frame which transmits the beam loads down to
the foundations. They are usually constructed in storey heights and therefore
the reinforcement must be lapped to provide structural continuity.

Beams – this are horizontal load
bearing members which are classified as either main beams which transmit floor
and secondary beam loads to the columns or secondary beams which transmit floor
loads to the main beams.


Simply supported Slabs – this are slabs which res on a bearing and for design purposes
are not considered to be fixed to the support and are therefore, in theory free
to lift. In practice however they are restrained from unacceptable lifting by
they own self weight plus any loadings.



Roof structures must provide resistance to failure due to
overstressing. It must be able to support own self weight, wind and imposed
loads like snow.

Roof coverings must provide adequate weather exclusion, have
reasonable durability and be aesthetically acceptable.

Roof must provide the required level of sound insulation and
provide good resistance to heat loss.


Use of the building may not be possible without developed infrastructure in the nearby area. For
easy access to the building, it is necessary to build motorway junction, an
asphalt road, lamp posts and bridge across the river. It is also necessary to
build a parking lot.


The building cannot be
considered as residential if no domestic services and communications are
connected to it.


Types of Domestic

 Water supply; Drainage
systems, Road drainage; Gas supply; Electrical supply; Ventilation systems;
Telephone and Electronic communication


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